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Microbial Load and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis Isolates from the Meat of Wild and Domestic Pigeons

1
Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Veterinary Faculty, University of León, E-24071 León, Spain
2
Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of León, E-24071 León, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(11), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110536
Received: 14 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
An expansion in the consumption of pigeon meat has occurred in recent years. However, little is known about microbial load and antibiotic resistance of this foodstuff. The hygiene status and the antibiotic resistance patterns (disc diffusion; Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, CLSI) of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis isolates from wild and domestic pigeon carcasses were investigated. Average microbial loads (log10 cfu/cm2) ranged from 1.40 ± 1.17 (fecal coliforms) to 3.68 ± 1.40 (psychrotrophs). The highest (p < 0.05) microbial loads were observed in domestic pigeons. No substantial differences were found between isolates from domestic and wild pigeons with regard to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Of the E. coli strains, 20.00% were susceptible, 25.00% showed resistance or reduced susceptibility to one antimicrobial and 55.00% were multi-resistant. Among the E. faecalis isolates, 2.22% were susceptible and 97.78% were multi-resistant. The greatest prevalence of resistance or reduced susceptibility among E. coli was observed for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20.00% strains), ampicillin (26.67%), streptomycin (55.00%) and tobramycin (20.00%). The prevalence of resistance or reduced susceptibility among E. faecalis ranged from 31.11% (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) to 97.78% (erythromycin). Meat from pigeons is a major reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The need for the correct handling of this foodstuff in order to reduce risks to consumers is underlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: pigeon meat; microbial load; antibiotic resistance; Escherichia coli; Enterococcus faecalis pigeon meat; microbial load; antibiotic resistance; Escherichia coli; Enterococcus faecalis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cordero, J.; Alonso-Calleja, C.; García-Fernández, C.; Capita, R. Microbial Load and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis Isolates from the Meat of Wild and Domestic Pigeons. Foods 2019, 8, 536.

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