Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu Plum) Kernels: A Novel Nutrition Source
Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Health and Food Sciences Precinct, 39 Kessels Rd Coopers Plains, P.O. Box 156, Archerfield BC, QLD 4108, Australia
Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services, Health and Food Sciences Precinct, 39 Kessels Rd, Coopers Plains, P.O. Box 594, Archerfield BC, QLD 4108, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2018, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040060
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Foods and Underutilized Fruits as Source of Functional Food Ingredients: Chemical Composition, Quality Traits, and Biological Properties)
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21.2% DW, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that kernels were a very rich source of minerals and trace elements, such as potassium (6693 mg/kg), calcium (5385 mg/kg), iron (61 mg/kg) and zinc (60 mg/kg) DW, and had low levels of heavy metals. The fatty acid composition of the kernels consisted of omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (50.2%), monounsaturated oleic acid (29.3%) and two saturated fatty acids namely palmitic acid (12.0%) and stearic acid (7.2%). The results indicate that T. ferdinandiana kernels have the potential to be utilized as a novel protein source for dietary purposes and non-conventional supply of linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids.