Next Article in Journal
1H NMR and Multivariate Analysis for Geographic Characterization of Commercial Extra Virgin Olive Oil: A Possible Correlation with Climate Data
Next Article in Special Issue
Lutein Esterification in Wheat Flour Increases the Carotenoid Retention and Is Induced by Storage Temperatures
Previous Article in Journal
Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Liver Pâtés with Annatto Extract (Bixa orellana L.) and Date Palm Co-Products (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Foods 2017, 6(11), 95;

The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits

Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
Department of Plant Breeding, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 101, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Small Grains Institute, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [661 KB, uploaded 2 November 2017]   |  


Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for increased nutritional benefit of wheat consumption. Therefore, ten South African wheat cultivars from three locations were fractionated into white and whole flour, the content and concentration of tocols were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and vitamin E activity was determined. The content and composition of tocols and vitamin E activity differed with fractionation, genotype, environment, and their interaction. The highest tocol content (59.8 mg kg−1) was obtained in whole flour for the cultivar Elands grown in Ladybrand, while whole Caledon flour from Clarence resulted in the highest vitamin E activity (16.3 mg kg−1). The lowest vitamin E activity (1.9 mg kg−1) was found in the cultivar C1PAN3118 from Ladybrand. High values of tocotrienols were obtained in whole flour of the cultivars Caledon (30.5 mg kg−1 in Clarens), Elands (35.5 mg kg−1 in Ladybrand), and Limpopo (33.7 mg kg−1 in Bultfontein). The highest tocotrienol to tocopherol ratio was found in white flour (2.83) due to higher reduction of tocotrienols than of tocopherols at fractionation. The quantity and composition of tocols can be governed in wheat flour, primarily by the selection of fractionation method at flour production, but also complemented by selection of genetic material and the growing environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Triticum aestivum; tocopherol; tocotrienol; vitamin E; genotype; environment Triticum aestivum; tocopherol; tocotrienol; vitamin E; genotype; environment

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Labuschagne, M.; Mkhatywa, N.; Johansson, E.; Wentzel, B.; van Biljon, A. The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits. Foods 2017, 6, 95.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top