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Review

Searching for the Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Neuroprotective Potential of Natural Food and Nutritional Supplements for Ocular Health in the Mediterranean Population

1
Ophthalmic Research Unit “Santiago Grisolía” Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of Valencia FISABIO, 46017 Valencia, Spain
2
Ophthalmic Medical Center (FOM), Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of Valencia (FISABIO), 46015 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Surgery, University of Valencia, 46019 Valencia, Spain
4
Spanish Net of Ophthalmic Research “OFTARED” RD16/0008/0022, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Department of Ophthalmology, General University Hospital “Morales Meseguer”, 30007 Murcia, Spain
6
Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, University of Murcia, 30120 Murcia, Spain
7
Cellular and Molecular Ophthalmobiology Group, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
8
Department of Immunology, Ophthalmology and Otorrinolaringology, Institute of Ophthalmic Research “Ramón Castroviejo”, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
9
Department of Ophthalmology. University Clinic Hospital of Valladolid, 47003 Valladolid, Spain
10
Faculty of Health Sciences, International University of Valencia, 46002 Valencia, Spain
11
Departament of Surgery, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinic Hospital of Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both (These) authors contributed equally to this work.
Group leaders contributing equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Amit K. Jaiswal
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061231
Received: 18 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
Adherence to a healthy diet offers a valuable intervention to compete against the increasing cases of ocular diseases worldwide, such as dry eye disorders, myopia progression, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, or age macular degeneration. Certain amounts of micronutrients must be daily provided for proper functioning of the visual system, such as vitamins, carotenoids, trace metals and omega-3 fatty acids. Among natural foods, the following have to be considered for boosting eye/vision health: fish, meat, eggs, nuts, legumes, citrus fruits, nuts, leafy green vegetables, orange-colored fruits/vegetables, olives-olive oil, and dairy products. Nutritional supplements have received much attention as potential tools for managing chronic-degenerative ocular diseases. A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, hand-searched publications and historical archives were performed by the professionals involved in this study, to include peer-reviewed articles in which natural food, nutrient content, and its potential relationship with ocular health. Five ophthalmologists and two researchers collected the characteristics, quality and suitability of the above studies. Finally, 177 publications from 1983 to 2021 were enclosed, mainly related to natural food, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and nutraceutic supplementation. For the first time, original studies with broccoli and tigernut (chufa de Valencia) regarding the ocular surface dysfunction, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma were enclosed. These can add value to the diet, counteract nutritional defects, and help in the early stages, as well as in the course of ophthalmic pathologies. The main purpose of this review, enclosed in the Special Issue “Health Benefits and Nutritional Quality of Fruits, Nuts and Vegetables,” is to identify directions for further research on the role of diet and nutrition in the eyes and vision, and the potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of natural food (broccoli, saffron, tigernuts and walnuts), the Mediterranean Diet, and nutraceutic supplements that may supply a promising and highly affordable scenario for patients at risk of vision loss. This review work was designed and carried out by a multidisciplinary group involved in ophthalmology and ophthalmic research and especially in nutritional ophthalmology. View Full-Text
Keywords: eye diseases; natural food; antioxidant/anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties; broccoli; saffron; tigernuts-chufa de Valencia; walnuts; Mediterranean diet; nutritional supplements eye diseases; natural food; antioxidant/anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties; broccoli; saffron; tigernuts-chufa de Valencia; walnuts; Mediterranean diet; nutritional supplements
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Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Valero-Vello, M.; Peris-Martínez, C.; García-Medina, J.J.; Sanz-González, S.M.; Ramírez, A.I.; Fernández-Albarral, J.A.; Galarreta-Mira, D.; Zanón-Moreno, V.; Casaroli-Marano, R.P.; Pinazo-Duran, M.D. Searching for the Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Neuroprotective Potential of Natural Food and Nutritional Supplements for Ocular Health in the Mediterranean Population. Foods 2021, 10, 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061231

AMA Style

Valero-Vello M, Peris-Martínez C, García-Medina JJ, Sanz-González SM, Ramírez AI, Fernández-Albarral JA, Galarreta-Mira D, Zanón-Moreno V, Casaroli-Marano RP, Pinazo-Duran MD. Searching for the Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Neuroprotective Potential of Natural Food and Nutritional Supplements for Ocular Health in the Mediterranean Population. Foods. 2021; 10(6):1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valero-Vello, Mar, Cristina Peris-Martínez, José J. García-Medina, Silvia M. Sanz-González, Ana I. Ramírez, José A. Fernández-Albarral, David Galarreta-Mira, Vicente Zanón-Moreno, Ricardo P. Casaroli-Marano, and María D. Pinazo-Duran 2021. "Searching for the Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Neuroprotective Potential of Natural Food and Nutritional Supplements for Ocular Health in the Mediterranean Population" Foods 10, no. 6: 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061231

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