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Article

The Relationship between the Browning Index, Total Phenolics, Color, and Antioxidant Activity of Polish-Originated Honey Samples

1
Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-784 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Sensory Laboratory, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-784 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria da Graça Costa G. Miguel
Foods 2021, 10(5), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050967
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition and Biological Properties of Bee Products)
Honey is a source of sugars, amino acids/proteins, and polyphenols, which are the main substrates and reactants in the Maillard reaction. Several bioactive molecules are formed and sequestered to the brown polymeric melanoidins, resulting in a gain and loss of antioxidant function in honey. Therefore, the relationships between the browning index and total phenolic contents, color, and antioxidant activity of Polish-originated honeys, namely acacia, buckwheat, heather, linden, multiflorous, and rapeseed, obtained from three local beekeepers, were addressed in this study. The Total Phenolic Content data showed the following order: buckwheat > heather > acacia > multiflorous > linden > rapeseed. The buckwheat honey also had the highest ability to scavenge free radicals in the range of 207.1–289.3 and 40.9–52.3 µmol Trolox g−1, provided by Antioxidant Compounds Water-soluble and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays, respectively. Furthermore, a higher degree of browning was observed in dark-colored honey, such as buckwheat (3.1) and heather (1.35 mAU), than in light ones. Moreover, L* and b* parameters had a greater value in the honey of multiflorous, linden, and rapeseed, and a* was higher in buckwheat and heather. The variables of browning and TPC, ACW, and FRAP were positively correlated with each other. It can be concluded that the browning index strongly contributed to parameters of honey appearance, bioactive compound content, and antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee product; browning index; buckwheat honey; L*a*b* parameters; scavenging radicals; total phenolics bee product; browning index; buckwheat honey; L*a*b* parameters; scavenging radicals; total phenolics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starowicz, M.; Ostaszyk, A.; Zieliński, H. The Relationship between the Browning Index, Total Phenolics, Color, and Antioxidant Activity of Polish-Originated Honey Samples. Foods 2021, 10, 967. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050967

AMA Style

Starowicz M, Ostaszyk A, Zieliński H. The Relationship between the Browning Index, Total Phenolics, Color, and Antioxidant Activity of Polish-Originated Honey Samples. Foods. 2021; 10(5):967. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050967

Chicago/Turabian Style

Starowicz, Małgorzata; Ostaszyk, Anita; Zieliński, Henryk. 2021. "The Relationship between the Browning Index, Total Phenolics, Color, and Antioxidant Activity of Polish-Originated Honey Samples" Foods 10, no. 5: 967. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050967

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