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Article

Impact of Rapeseed Press Cake on the Rheological Properties and Expansion Dynamics of Extruded Maize Starch

1
Department of Food Process Development, Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
Singapore Institute of Food and Biotechnology Innovation, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138669, Singapore
3
Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Chair of Food Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Costas Stathopoulos
Foods 2021, 10(3), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030616
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
Rapeseed press cake (RPC), an oil pressing side product rich in protein and fiber, can be combined with starch and valorized into directly expanded products using extrusion technology. The mechanism of starch expansion has been studied in detail, but the impact of RPC on expansion behavior is poorly understood. However, it can be linked to rheological and physicochemical properties and is a key product quality parameter. Blends with different amounts of RPC (0, 10, 40 g/100 g) were extruded at different barrel temperatures (100, 120, 140 °C) and moisture contents (24 or 29 g/100 g). The initial, intermediate and final sectional, longitudinal and volumetric expansion indices (SEI, LEI, VEI) were monitored directly, 10 s and 24 h after die exit to measure extrudate growth and shrinkage. The viscous and elastic properties of the extruded blends were investigated in a closed cavity rheometer. Starch and blends with 10 g/100 g RPC achieved a high initial SEI followed by significant short-term shrinkage. Blends containing 40 g/100 g RPC did not show any initial expansion. With increasing RPC content, the intermediate SEI decreased, but all samples reached a similar final SEI due to time-dependent swelling of the RPC blends. With increasing RPC content, the elasticity of the starch-based extruded samples significantly increased. Our study shows that comprehensive control and understanding of expansion mechanisms can be achieved only by investigating all stages of extrudate growth and shrinkage. We also found that the closed cavity rheometer is a powerful tool to correlate the rheological properties and expansion mechanisms of biopolymers. View Full-Text
Keywords: canola; fiber; expansion; low-moisture extrusion; closed cavity rheometer; biopolymers; plant protein; side stream canola; fiber; expansion; low-moisture extrusion; closed cavity rheometer; biopolymers; plant protein; side stream
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martin, A.; Osen, R.; Karbstein, H.P.; Emin, M.A. Impact of Rapeseed Press Cake on the Rheological Properties and Expansion Dynamics of Extruded Maize Starch. Foods 2021, 10, 616. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030616

AMA Style

Martin A, Osen R, Karbstein HP, Emin MA. Impact of Rapeseed Press Cake on the Rheological Properties and Expansion Dynamics of Extruded Maize Starch. Foods. 2021; 10(3):616. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030616

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martin, Anna, Raffael Osen, Heike P. Karbstein, and M. A. Emin. 2021. "Impact of Rapeseed Press Cake on the Rheological Properties and Expansion Dynamics of Extruded Maize Starch" Foods 10, no. 3: 616. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030616

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