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Article

Effects of Dietary Pork Fat Cooked Using Different Methods on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Liver Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Rats

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Engineering Research Center for Huaiyang Cuisin of Jiangsu Province, College of Tourism and Culinary, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China
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College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
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Key Laboratory of Chinese Cuisine Intangible Cultural Heritage Technology Inheritance, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China
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College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto Cepeda Sáez
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123030
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 2 December 2021 / Published: 6 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
Cooking may affect the nutritional value of pork fat, and, nowadays, people have been paying an increasing amount of attention to the method of cooking. In this study, the effects of dietary pork fat cooked using different methods on body metabolism and intestinal microbes were studied in rats. Fat was extracted from pork belly meat cooked using three methods: braising (braising cooking method, BCM), stewing (SCM) and deep fat frying (DCM). The three types of pork fat were added to animal feed, and the effects of each on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, liver inflammation and intestinal microbes in rats were compared with the effects of soybean oil-treated feed (SO) and a blank control (BC). Rats in all three groups fed with cooked pork fat exhibited significant increases in body weight compared with the controls across the experimental feeding period. Furthermore, all three types of pork fat led to significant changes in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) relative to the controls, with the greatest increases in TG and TC in the BCM and DCM groups, respectively. All three types of pork fat led to significant decreases in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations relative to the controls, with the lowest concentration in the SCM group. All three types of pork fat also led to significant increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations relative to the controls, with the smallest increase in the DCM group. Rats in the SCM group had the highest level of liver fat deposition, followed by those in the BCM, DCM, SO and BC groups. Compared with the controls, the three groups fed with different types of cooked pork fat had significantly lower hepatic expression of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB). The expression levels of NF-κB in the DCM and SO groups were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The abundance of Proteobacteria species in the intestines of rats was significantly lower in the BC group than in the other groups fed with cooked pork fat, and the abundance of Bacteroidetes species was significantly lower in the BCM, SCM and DCM groups than in the BC and SO groups. From the changes in the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroides, pork fat in the three cooking methods has a certain potential to promote the production of body obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooking method; pork fat; glucose and lipid metabolism; liver inflammation; intestinal microbiota cooking method; pork fat; glucose and lipid metabolism; liver inflammation; intestinal microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, W.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Chen, D.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Z.; Zhou, X. Effects of Dietary Pork Fat Cooked Using Different Methods on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Liver Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Rats. Foods 2021, 10, 3030. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123030

AMA Style

Zhu W, Xu Y, Liu J, Chen D, Zhang H, Yang Z, Zhou X. Effects of Dietary Pork Fat Cooked Using Different Methods on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Liver Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Rats. Foods. 2021; 10(12):3030. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Wenzheng, Yan Xu, Jun Liu, Dawei Chen, Huimin Zhang, Zhangping Yang, and Xiaoyan Zhou. 2021. "Effects of Dietary Pork Fat Cooked Using Different Methods on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Liver Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Rats" Foods 10, no. 12: 3030. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123030

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