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Open AccessArticle

Soy Protein Pressed Gels: Gelation Mechanism Affects the In Vitro Proteolysis and Bioaccessibility of Added Phenolic Acids

1
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
2
School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
3
Food and Bio-Based Products Group, AgResearch Limited, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2021, 10(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010154
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
In this study, a model system of firm tofu (pressed gel) was prepared to study how the coagulation mechanism—acidification with glucono δ-lactone (GDL) or coagulation with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4)—affected the physical properties of the gels along with their in vitro proteolysis (or extent of proteolysis). The two types of gels were also fortified with 3.5 mM protocatechuic (PCA) and coumaric acid (CMA) to test whether they can be used as bioactive delivery systems. Texture analysis showed that all MgSO4-induced gels (fortified and control) had a higher hydration capacity and a weaker texture than the GDL-induced gels (p < 0.05). MgSO4 gels had almost double proteolysis percentages throughout the in vitro digestion and showed a significantly higher amino acid bioaccessibility than the GDL gels (essential amino acid bioaccessibility of 56% versus 31%; p < 0.05). Lastly, both gel matrices showed a similar phenolic acid release profile, on a percentage basis (~80% for PCA and ~100% for CMA). However, GDL gels delivered significantly higher masses of bioactives under simulated intestinal conditions because they could retain more of the bioactives in the gel after pressing. It was concluded that the coagulation mechanism affects both the macro- and microstructure of the soy protein pressed gels and as a result their protein digestibility. Both pressed gel matrices are promising delivery systems for bioactive phenolic acids. View Full-Text
Keywords: soy protein gels; firm tofu; protocatechuic acid; coumaric acid; glucono δ-lactone; magnesium sulphate; bioaccessibility soy protein gels; firm tofu; protocatechuic acid; coumaric acid; glucono δ-lactone; magnesium sulphate; bioaccessibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marinea, M.; Ellis, A.; Golding, M.; Loveday, S.M. Soy Protein Pressed Gels: Gelation Mechanism Affects the In Vitro Proteolysis and Bioaccessibility of Added Phenolic Acids. Foods 2021, 10, 154. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010154

AMA Style

Marinea M, Ellis A, Golding M, Loveday SM. Soy Protein Pressed Gels: Gelation Mechanism Affects the In Vitro Proteolysis and Bioaccessibility of Added Phenolic Acids. Foods. 2021; 10(1):154. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010154

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marinea, Marina; Ellis, Ashling; Golding, Matt; Loveday, Simon M. 2021. "Soy Protein Pressed Gels: Gelation Mechanism Affects the In Vitro Proteolysis and Bioaccessibility of Added Phenolic Acids" Foods 10, no. 1: 154. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010154

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