# Exploring the Hjif-Index, an Analogue to the H-Like Index for Journal Impact Factors

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction and Objectives

^{(2)}-index [8], success index [9], A- and AR-indices [10] and R-index [11]. Additional studies have proposed new h-type indices or related them to research evaluation methods [12,13,14,15,16].

- (a)
- To calculate a hjif-index defined in a manner similar to the h-index. This indicator was obtained for each JCR group with two versions of the JIF: the usual one calculated with a 2-year window (JIF2), and a newer one calculated with a five-year window (JIF5).
- (b)
- To explore the distribution of JCR groups according to the two hjif-indices calculated here.
- (c)
- To explore the distribution of JCR groups according to the percentage of journals included in the hjif-core (see below).
- (d)
- To compare the behavior of the hjif-indices based on the JIF2 and the JIF5.

## 2. Method

#### 2.1. Calculation of Hjif-Indices and Hjif-Core

**n**integer intervals on the main y-axis (left). Next, we plotted the usual straight line y = x to obtain the hjif2-index for the ENGINEERING, OCEAN group as the JIF2 corresponding to the journal with the lowest JIF2 above the straight line. In this case, the hjif2-index for this group was 1.175 corresponding to the journal IEEE J OCEANIC ENG.

**n**was the maximum number of different JIFs. However, the hjif-index was not defined here by rank (integer or natural number), but by the JIF related to a given

**n**. There were no upper bounds to the hjif-index because it was defined by the maximum JIF and not by the number of publications.

#### 2.2. Distribution of JCR Groups

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Distribution of JCR Groups According Their Hjif-Index

#### 3.2. Quotient Max(JIF)/Hjif-Index

#### 3.3. Relationship between Hjif5-Index and Hjif2-Index

^{2}= 0.95). For each JCR group, we calculated the hjif5-index—hjif2-index difference. As expected from the above correlation, the distribution of the differences was narrow, with most groups falling within a small range of values. For example, in 153 groups (about 87%) the differences between JI5-index and hjif2-index ranged between −0.100 and 0.600. These results illustrate once again the similarities between the JIF2 and JIF5.

#### 3.4. Distribution of JCR Groups According to the Percentage of Journals in the Hjif-Core

## 4. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Hirsch, J.E. An Index to quantify an individual’s scientific output. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
**2005**, 102, 16569–16572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version] - Braun, T.; Glänzel, W.; Schubert, A. A Hirsch-type index for journals. Scientometrics
**2006**, 69, 169–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bar-Ilan, J. The h-index of h-index and of other informetric topics. Scientometrics
**2008**, 75, 591–605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Schubert, A.; Glänzel, W. A systematic analysis of Hirsch-type indices for journals. J. Informetr.
**2007**, 1, 179–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bertoli-Barsotti, L.; Lando, T.A. Theoretical model of the relationship between the h-index and other simple citation indicators. Scientometrics
**2017**, 111, 1415–1448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Iglesias, J.E.; Pecharromán, C. Scaling the h-index for different scientific ISI fields. Scientometrics
**2007**, 73, 303–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Egghe, L. Theory and practice of the g-index. Scientometrics
**2006**, 69, 131–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kosmulski, M. A new Hirsch-type index saves time and works equally well as the original h-index. ISSI Newsl.
**2006**, 2, 4–6. [Google Scholar] - Franceschini, F.; Galetto, M.; Maisano, D.; Mastrogiacomo, L. The success-index: An alternative approach to the h-index for evaluating an individual's research output. Scientometrics
**2011**, 92, 621–641. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Jin, B.H.; Liang, L.M.; Rousseau, R.; Egghe, L. The R- and AR-indices: Complementing the h-index. ISSI Newsl.
**2007**, 52, 855–863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Jin, B.H.; Liang, L.; Rousseau, R.; Egghe, L. The R- and AR-indices: Complementing the h-index. Chin. Sci. Bull.
**2007**, 52, 855–863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bornmann, L.; Daniel, H.D. The state of h index research. EMBO Rep.
**2009**, 10, 2–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Alonso, S.; Cabrerizo, F.J.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Herrera, F. h-Index: A review focused in its variants, computation and standardization for different scientific fields. J. Informetr.
**2009**, 3, 273–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Panaretos, J.; Malesios, C. Assessing scientific research performance and impact with single indices. Scientometrics
**2009**, 81, 635–670. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Egghe, L. The Hirsch index and related impact measures. Annu. Rev. Inf. Sci. Technol.
**2010**, 44, 65–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Schreiber, M.; Malesios, C.C.; Psarakis, S. Exploratory factor analysis for the Hirsch index, 17 h-type variants, and some traditional bibliometric indicators. J. Informetr.
**2012**, 6, 347–358. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ye, F.; Rousseau, R. Probing the h-core: An investigation of the tail–core ratio for rank distributions. Scientometrics
**2009**, 84, 431–439. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Rousseau, R. Simple Models and the Corresponding h- and g-Index. Available online: https://doclib.uhasselt.be/dspace/bitstream/1942/944/1/Rousseau%20Dalian.pdf (accessed on 3 April 2018).
- Mahbuba, D.; Rousseau, R. Year-based h-type indicators. Scientometrics
**2013**, 96, 785–797. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ruane, F.; Tol, R. Rational (successive) h-indices: An application to economics in the Republic of Ireland. Scientometrics
**2008**, 75, 395–405. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Guns, R.; Rousseau, R. Real and rational variants of the h-index and the g-index. J. Informetr.
**2009**, 3, 64–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Glänzel, W.; Moed, H.F. Journal impact measures in bibliometric research. Scientometrics
**2002**, 53, 171–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bensman, S.J. Garfield and the impact factor. Annu. Rev. Inf. Sci. Technol.
**2007**, 41, 93–155. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Waltman, L. A review of the literature on citation impact indicators. J. Informetr.
**2016**, 10, 365–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bornmann, L.; Marx, W. The journal impact factor and alternative metrics. EMBO Rep.
**2016**, 17, 1094–1097. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Yang, D.H.; Li, X.; Sun, X.; Wan, J. Detecting impact factor manipulation with data mining techniques. Scientometrics
**2016**, 109, 1989–2005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Archambault, E.; Larivière, V. History of the journal impact factor: Contingencies and consequences. Scientometrics
**2009**, 79, 635–649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Yang, Z.G.; Zhang, C.T. A proposal for a novel impact factor as an alternative to the JCR impact factor. Sci. Rep.
**2013**, 3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Egghe, L.; Liang, L.; Rousseau, R. A relation between h-index and impact factor in the power-law model. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol.
**2009**, 60, 2362–2365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Boell, S.; Wilson, C. Journal impact factors for evaluating scientific performance: Use of h-like indicators. Scientometrics
**2010**, 82, 613–626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Van Eck, N.J.; Waltman, L. Generalizing the h-and g-indices. J. Informetr.
**2008**, 2, 263–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Rousseau, R.; García-Zorita, C.; Sanz-Casado, E. The h-bubble. J. Informetr.
**2013**, 7, 294–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Barnes, C.S. The construct validity of the h-index. J. Doc.
**2016**, 72, 878–895. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bornmann, L. h-index research in scientometrics: A summary. J. Informetr.
**2014**, 8, 749–750. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Campanario, J.M. Empirical study of journal impact factors obtained using the classical two-year citation window versus a five-year citation window. Scientometrics
**2011**, 87, 189–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

1 | We are indebted to an anonymous referee for this definition. |

**Figure 1.**Top: Calculation of the hjif2-index for the ENGINEERING, OCEAN group (see Table 1). JIFs (secondary y-axis, right) were plotted versus each JIF2 ordinal number (1, 2, 3, ... n). Next, on the primary y-axis (left), the space between zero and the highest JIF2s was divided into

**n**intervals (n = 14). The straight line y = x was plotted and used to obtain the hjif2-index. This hjif2-index is the lowest JIF2 above the line (hjif2-index = 1.175). The hjif2-core includes all journals located above the line. Bottom: Calculation of the hjif2-index for the MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES group.

**Figure 3.**Distribution of JCR groups according to the Max(JIF2)/hjif2-index (top) and Max(JIF5)/hjif5-index quotient (bottom).

**Figure 4.**Distribution of JCR groups according to the percentage of journals included in the hjif2-core (top) and hjif5-core (bottom).

**Figure 5.**Relationship between the percentage of journals included in the hjif2-core and the hjif2-index (top), and between the percentage of journals included in the hjif5-core and hjif5-index (bottom).

Journal | JIF | N | Difference from the hjif2-Index | H-Core |
---|---|---|---|---|

COAST ENG | 2.428 | 1 | 1.253 | Yes |

COAST ENG J | 2.250 | 2 | 1.075 | Yes |

J ATMOS OCEAN TECH | 1.725 | 3 | 0.550 | Yes |

OCEAN ENG | 1.351 | 4 | 0.176 | Yes |

APPL OCEAN RES | 1.287 | 5 | 0.112 | Yes |

IEEE J OCEANIC ENG | 1.175 | 6 | 0.000 | Yes |

J WATERW PORT COAST | 0.792 | 7 | −0.383 | |

MAR GEORESOUR GEOTEC | 0.644 | 8 | −0.531 | |

J OFFSHORE MECH ARCT | 0.570 | 9 | −0.605 | |

INT J OFFSHORE POLAR | 0.517 | 10 | −0.658 | |

MAR TECHNOL SOC J | 0.434 | 11 | −0.741 | |

CHINA OCEAN ENG | 0.344 | 12 | −0.831 | |

P I CIVIL ENG-MAR EN | 0.312 | 13 | −0.863 | |

SEA TECHNOL | 0.101 | 14 | −1.074 |

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Cabos, W.; Campanario, J.M. Exploring the Hjif-Index, an Analogue to the H-Like Index for Journal Impact Factors. *Publications* **2018**, *6*, 14.
https://doi.org/10.3390/publications6020014

**AMA Style**

Cabos W, Campanario JM. Exploring the Hjif-Index, an Analogue to the H-Like Index for Journal Impact Factors. *Publications*. 2018; 6(2):14.
https://doi.org/10.3390/publications6020014

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Cabos, William, and Juan Miguel Campanario. 2018. "Exploring the Hjif-Index, an Analogue to the H-Like Index for Journal Impact Factors" *Publications* 6, no. 2: 14.
https://doi.org/10.3390/publications6020014