Restoring subgingival class-V cavities successfully, demand special biological properties from a restorative material. This study aimed to assess the effects of incorporating bioactive materials to glass ionomer cement (GIC) on its mechanical and biological properties. Hydroxyapatite, chitosan, chondroitin sulphate, bioglass, gelatine and processed bovine dentin were incorporated into a GIC restorative material. Compressive strength, biaxial flexural strength (BFS), hardness, setting and working time measurements were investigated. Biocompatibility of the new materials was assessed using both monolayer cell cultures of normal oral fibroblasts (NOF) and TR146 keratinocytes, and a 3D-tissue engineered human oral mucosa model (3D-OMM) using presto-blue tissue viability assay and histological examination. Significant reduction in the compressive strength and BFS of gelatine-modified discs was observed, while chondroitin sulphate-modified discs had reduced BFS only (p
value > 0.05). For hardness, working and setting times, only bioglass caused significant increase in the working time. NOF viability was significantly increased when exposed to GIC-modified with bovine dentine, bioglass and chitosan. Histological examination showed curling and growth of the epithelial layer toward the disc space, except for the GIC modified with gelatine. This study has highlighted the potential for clinical application of the modified GICs with hydroxyapatite, chitosan, bioglass and bovine dentine in subgingival class-V restorations.
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