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Bone Density and Implant Primary Stability. A Study on Equine Bone Blocks

Dental School, University of Milan, 20132 Milan, Italy
Private Practice, 20871 Vimercate, Italy
Dental School, Vita-Salute University and IRCCS San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dent. J. 2019, 7(3), 73;
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dental Biomaterials)
PDF [1229 KB, uploaded 1 July 2019]


Previous results on synthetic blocks mimicking bone indicate that bone density can be measured by the friction encountered by a rotating probe while it descends into bone, and that primary implant stability may be measured through the integral (I) of the torque–depth curve at implant insertion. This study aims to repeat those tests on collagen-preserving equine bone blocks as they better reproduce the mechanical properties of natural bone. Fifteen cancellous equine blocks had their density measured using a measuring probe. This was compared to their known physical density through linear regression analysis. Implant placement was carried out into six cancellous equine blocks and primary stability was measured using (I), as well as the insertion torque (IT), the implant stability quotient (ISQ), and the reverse torque (RT). The relation between (I), (IT), (ISQ), and (RT) was investigated by correlation analysis. Bone density measured using the probe correlated significantly with actual density, both with (r = 0.764) and without irrigation (r = 0.977). (I) correlated significantly with IT and RT under all irrigation conditions, and with ISQ only without irrigation (r = 0.886). The results suggest that the probe provides actual bone density measurements. They also indicate that (I) measures primary implant stability and is more sensitive to density variations than IT, RT, and ISQ. Results are consistent with those obtained on synthetic blocks but suggest that equine bone blocks may better reproduce the mechanical properties of human cancellous alveolar bone. This should be the subject of additional studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone density; implant stability; equine bone blocks bone density; implant stability; equine bone blocks

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Orlando, F.; Arosio, F.; Arosio, P.; Di Stefano, D.A. Bone Density and Implant Primary Stability. A Study on Equine Bone Blocks. Dent. J. 2019, 7, 73.

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