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Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040058

Substantial Differences in the Subgingival Microbiome Measured by 16S Metagenomics According to Periodontitis Status in Older Women

1
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, 270 Farber Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
2
Departments of Oral Biology, and Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Microbiome Research, University at Buffalo, 135 Foster Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo, 338 Davis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
4
Genome, Environment, and Microbiome Community of Excellent, University at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
5
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, 500 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
6
Departments of Immunology, Computer Science and Engineering, and Bioinformatics, University at Buffalo, 338 Davis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
7
Departments of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo, 955 Main Street, Suite 4102, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
8
Department of Oral Biology, University at Buffalo, 135 Foster Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Abstract

Aging invokes physiological changes, such as immunosenescence and inflammation, that could increase host susceptibility to oral microbiome shifts that enable periodontitis progression in later life. At present, there is a dearth of studies specifically evaluating the oral microbiome and periodontitis in older adults. We used high-throughput untargeted sequencing methods and functional metagenomic analyses to assess and compare the subgingival biofilm of postmenopausal women (mean age 71 years) according to periodontitis status. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from 15 postmenopausal women with no periodontitis, and from 15 women with severe periodontitis, determined by probing measures. The 16S rRNA gene (V1–V3 region) was sequenced on the 454 FLX platform. The PICRUSt technique was used to provide information on what the potential functional characteristics of microbiota might be in healthy, compared with diseased, periodontium. The subgingival microbiome associated with periodontitis showed clear differences to that associated with health. Of the 464 species identified, 22.8% had elevated abundance in disease, while only 6.3% had elevated abundance in health. Among the 12 most prevalent organisms in periodontitis, one-half have previously been recognized as periodontal pathogens by other investigators. The subgingival microbiome in periodontitis contained genes that could code for specific activities, including microbial mobility, synthesis of endotoxin, and proteolytic degradation. The healthy microbiome included genes that could code for sustaining microbial life, including encoding for transporters, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the Krebs cycle, and protein kinases. In the present study on postmenopausal women, aged 60 and older, the subgingival microbiome differed in composition and potential function between those with and without periodontitis. Studies of functional gene expression, such as transcriptomics, are needed to definitively identify the molecules carrying out functions associated with pathogenic subgingival complexes. This, in turn, could lead to identification of targets for enhanced management of periodontitis and, possibly, other diseases, in later life. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; periodontal disease; women; menopause; aging microbiome; periodontal disease; women; menopause; aging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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LaMonte, M.J.; Genco, R.J.; Zheng, W.; McSkimming, D.I.; Andrews, C.A.; Hovey, K.M.; Li, L.; Sun, Y.; Buck, M.J.; Millen, A.E.; Falkner, K.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J. Substantial Differences in the Subgingival Microbiome Measured by 16S Metagenomics According to Periodontitis Status in Older Women. Dent. J. 2018, 6, 58.

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