Next Article in Journal
Molecular Engineering of High Energy Barrier in Single-Molecule Magnets Based on [MoIII(CN)7]4− and V(II) Complexes
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Illumination Direction and Temperature on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Viscous Cobalt Complex-Based Electrolytes
Previous Article in Journal
Homoleptic Lanthanide Complexes Containing a Redox-Active Ligand and the Investigation of Their Electronic and Photophysical Properties
Previous Article in Special Issue
Copper Complexes with Tetradentate Ligands for Enhanced Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Inorganics 2018, 6(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics6020057

The Versatile SALSAC Approach to Heteroleptic Copper(I) Dye Assembly in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Building 1096, Mattenstrasse 24a, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Coordination Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs))
Full-Text   |   PDF [10350 KB, uploaded 25 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Surface-bound heteroleptic copper(I) dyes [Cu(Lanchor)(Lancillary)]+ are assembled using the “surfaces-as-ligands, surfaces as complexes” (SALSAC) approach by three different procedures. The anchoring and ancillary ligands chosen are ((6,6′-dimethyl-[2,2′-bipyridine]-4,4′-diyl)-bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(phosphonic acid) (3) and 4,4′-bis(4-iodophenyl)-6,6′-diphenyl-2,2′-bipyridine (4), respectively. In the first SALSAC procedure, the FTO/TiO2 electrode is functionalized with 3 in the first dye bath, and then undergoes ligand exchange with the homoleptic complex [Cu(4)2][PF6] to give surface-bound [Cu(3)(4)]+. In the second method, the FTO/TiO2 electrode functionalized with 3 is immersed in a solution containing a 1:1 mixture of [Cu(MeCN)4][PF6] and 4 to give surface-anchored [Cu(3)(4)]+. In the third procedure, the anchor 3, copper(I) ion and ancillary ligand 4 are introduced in a sequential manner. The performances of the DSSCs show a dependence on the dye assembly procedure. The sequential method leads to the best-performing DSSCs with the highest values of JSC (7.85 and 7.73 mA cm−2 for fully masked cells) and overall efficiencies (η = 2.81 and 2.71%, representing 41.1 and 39.6% relative to an N719 reference DSSC). Use of the 1:1 mixture of [Cu(MeCN)4][PF6] and 4 yields DSSCs with higher VOC values but lower JSC values compared to those assembled using the sequential approach; values of η are 2.27 and 2.29% versus 6.84% for the N719 reference DSSC. The ligand exchange procedure leads to DSSCs that perform relatively poorly. The investigation demonstrates the versatile and powerful nature of SALSAC in preparing dyes for copper-based DSSCs, allowing the photoconversion efficiency of dye to be optimized for a given dye. The SALSAC strategy provides alternative hierarchical strategies where the isolation of the homoleptic [Cu(Lancillary)2]+ is difficult or time-consuming; stepwise strategies are more atom-economic than ligand exchange involving the homoleptic [Cu(Lancillary)2]+. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; 2,2′-bipyridine; dye-sensitized solar cell; solar energy conversion; iodo-substitution; stepwise surface dye assembly copper; 2,2′-bipyridine; dye-sensitized solar cell; solar energy conversion; iodo-substitution; stepwise surface dye assembly
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Malzner, F.J.; Housecroft, C.E.; Constable, E.C. The Versatile SALSAC Approach to Heteroleptic Copper(I) Dye Assembly in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Inorganics 2018, 6, 57.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Inorganics EISSN 2304-6740 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top