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Inorganics 2017, 5(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics5040075

Synthesis of 1,3-Diols from Isobutene and HCHO via Prins Condensation-Hydrolysis Using CeO2 Catalysts: Effects of Crystal Plane and Oxygen Vacancy

1
State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China
2
Energy Innovation Laboratory, BP Office (Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics), Dalian 116023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerium-based Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Abstract

We herein report the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol from isobutene and HCHO in water via a Prins condensation-hydrolysis reaction over CeO2, which is a water-tolerant Lewis acid catalyst. The CeO2 exhibits significant catalytic activity for the reaction, giving 95% HCHO conversion and 84% 3-methyl-1,3-butanediol selectivity at 150 °C for 4 h. The crystal planes of CeO2 have a significant effect on the catalytic activity for the Prins reaction. The (110) plane shows the highest catalytic activity among the crystal planes investigated (the (100), (110), and (111) planes), due to its higher concentration of Lewis acid sites, which is in line with the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Detailed characterizations, including NH3-TPD, pyridine-adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, revealed that the concentration of Lewis acid sites is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. This study indicates that the Lewis acidity induced by oxygen vacancy can be modulated by selective synthesis of CeO2 with different morphologies, and that the Lewis acidity and oxygen vacancy play an important role in Prins condensation and hydrolysis reaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: CeO2; crystal plane effect; Prins condensation; hydrolysis; oxygen vacancy; Lewis acidity CeO2; crystal plane effect; Prins condensation; hydrolysis; oxygen vacancy; Lewis acidity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Lu, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, J.; Liu, X.; Wang, F. Synthesis of 1,3-Diols from Isobutene and HCHO via Prins Condensation-Hydrolysis Using CeO2 Catalysts: Effects of Crystal Plane and Oxygen Vacancy. Inorganics 2017, 5, 75.

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