Topological insulators (TIs) have unique highly conducting symmetry-protected surface states while the bulk is insulating, making them attractive for various applications in condensed matter physics. Recently, topological insulator materials have been tentatively applied for both near- and far-field wavefront manipulation of electromagnetic waves, yielding superior plasmonic properties in the ultraviolet (UV)-to-visible wavelength range. However, previous reports have only demonstrated inefficient wavefront control based on binary metasurfaces that were digitalized on a TI thin film or non-directional surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation. Here, we numerically demonstrated the plasmonic capabilities of the TI Bi2
as a material for gap–surface plasmon (GSP) metasurfaces. By employing the principle of the geometric phase, a far-field beam-steering metasurface was designed for the visible spectrum, yielding a cross-polarization efficiency of 34% at 500 nm while suppressing the co-polarization to 0.08%. Furthermore, a birefringent GSP metasurface design was studied and found to be capable of directionally exciting SPPs depending on the incident polarization. Our work forms the basis for accurately controlling the far- and near-field responses of TI-based GSP metasurfaces in the visible spectral range.
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