Objective User Visual Experience Evaluation When Working with Virtual Pixel-Based 3D System and Real Voxel-Based 3D System
Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Latvia, Jelgavas 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2019, 6(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6040106
Received: 19 September 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Applications of Optics and Photonics – Selected Papers from the 4th International Conference on Applications of Optics and Photonics, AOP2019)
Volumetric display shows promising implications for healthcare related applications as an innovative technology that creates real three-dimensional (3D) image by illuminating points in three-dimensional space to generate volumetric images without image separation. We used eccentric photorefractometry to objectively study ocular performance in a practical environment by evaluating near work-induced refraction shift, accommodative microfluctuations, and pupil size for 38 young adults after viewing anaglyph, and volumetric 3D content for prolonged time. The results of our study demonstrate that participants who performed relative depth estimation task on volumetric 3D content were less likely to experience task-induced myopic refraction shift. For both 3D content types, we observed pupil constriction, that is possibly related to visual fatigue. For anaglyph 3D pupil constriction, onset was observed significantly sooner, compared to volumetric 3D. Overall, sustained work with 3D content, and small disparities or the fully eliminated possibility of accommodation-vergence conflict, not only minimizes near work-induced myopic shift, but also provide beneficial accommodation relaxation that was demonstrated in this study as hypermetropic shift for nearly half of participants.