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Photonics 2018, 5(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics5040046

Pancharatnam–Berry Optical Elements for Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Division Demultiplexing

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy ‘G. Galilei’, University of Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Laboratory for Nanofabrication of Nanodevices (LaNN), EcamRicert, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova, Italy
3
CNR-INFM TASC IOM National Laboratory, S.S. 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, 34012 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Angular Momentum in Nanophotonics)
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Abstract

A Pancharatnam–Berry optical element is designed, fabricated, and optically characterized for the demultiplexing of beams with different polarization and orbital angular momentum states at the telecom wavelength of 1310 nm. The geometric phase control is achieved by fabricating properly-oriented subwavelength gratings on a silicon substrate, inducing a spatially-variant form birefringence. The digital grating pattern is transferred to the silicon substrate with a two-step nanofabrication protocol, using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching to transfer the resist pattern generated with high-resolution electron beam lithography. The optical characterization of the sample confirms the expected capability to sort circularly polarized optical beams with different handedness and orbital angular momentum. Encompassing optical element design and silicon photonics, the designed silicon metasurface paves the way to innovative devices for total angular momentum mode division multiplexing with unprecedented levels of integration. View Full-Text
Keywords: orbital angular momentum; mode division multiplexing; polarization division multiplexing; Pancharatnam–Berry optical elements; metasurfaces; subwavelength gratings; electron beam lithography; reactive ion etching; silicon orbital angular momentum; mode division multiplexing; polarization division multiplexing; Pancharatnam–Berry optical elements; metasurfaces; subwavelength gratings; electron beam lithography; reactive ion etching; silicon
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ruffato, G.; Capaldo, P.; Massari, M.; Mezzadrelli, A.; Romanato, F. Pancharatnam–Berry Optical Elements for Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum Division Demultiplexing. Photonics 2018, 5, 46.

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