# Estimation of BER from Error Vector Magnitude for Optical Coherent Systems

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Error Vector Magnitude

## 3. BER Estimation from EVM with Carrier Phase Recovery and Differential Decoding

## 4. BER Estimation with Correction Factor

## 5. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Sensitivity penalty at the target bit error ratio (BER) of 10${}^{-3}$ for QSPK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM.

**Figure 2.**Estimated BER from error vector magnitude (EVM) analysis for different modulation formats at the target BER of 10${}^{-3}$.

**Figure 4.**Performance of estimated and calibrated BER from EVM analysis for: (

**a**) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) ($\Delta \nu \xb7{T}_{s}={10}^{-4}$); (

**b**) 16-QAM ($\Delta \nu \xb7{T}_{s}={10}^{-4}$); (

**c**) 64-QAM ($\Delta \nu \xb7{T}_{s}={10}^{-5}$). The actual BER is based on error counting.

© 2016 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Fatadin, I. Estimation of BER from Error Vector Magnitude for Optical Coherent Systems. *Photonics* **2016**, *3*, 21.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3020021

**AMA Style**

Fatadin I. Estimation of BER from Error Vector Magnitude for Optical Coherent Systems. *Photonics*. 2016; 3(2):21.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3020021

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Fatadin, Irshaad. 2016. "Estimation of BER from Error Vector Magnitude for Optical Coherent Systems" *Photonics* 3, no. 2: 21.
https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics3020021