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Open AccessArticle

Design and Performance of a Multi-Point Scan Confocal Microendoscope

College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Department of Medical Imaging, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, PO Box 245067, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2014, 1(4), 421-431;
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
PDF [421 KB, uploaded 20 November 2014]


Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy provides high-resolution cellular-level imaging via a minimally invasive procedure, but requires fast scanning to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a point scanning system, but the scan rates required for in vivo biomedical imaging can be difficult to achieve. By scanning a line of illumination in one direction in conjunction with a stationary confocal slit aperture, very high image acquisition speeds can be achieved, but at the cost of a reduction in image quality. Here, the design, implementation, and experimental verification of a custom multi-point aperture modification to a line-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope is presented. This new design improves the axial resolution of a line-scan system while maintaining high imaging rates. In addition, compared to the line-scanning configuration, previously reported simulations predicted that the multi-point aperture geometry greatly reduces the effects of tissue scatter on image quality. Experimental results confirming this prediction are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: confocal microscopy; microendoscopy; endomicroscopy; optical biopsy; multi-point imaging; Nipkow confocal microscopy; microendoscopy; endomicroscopy; optical biopsy; multi-point imaging; Nipkow

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Risi, M.D.; Makhlouf, H.; Rouse, A.R.; Tanbakuchi, A.A.; Gmitro, A.F. Design and Performance of a Multi-Point Scan Confocal Microendoscope. Photonics 2014, 1, 421-431.

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