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Recent Advances in Extraction and Stirring Integrated Techniques

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Victoria F. Samanidou
Separations 2017, 4(1), 6;
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Microextraction Techniques for Sample Preparation)
PDF [5257 KB, uploaded 15 March 2017]


The extraction yield of a microextraction technique depends on thermodynamic and kinetics factors. Both of these factors have been the focus of intensive research in the last few years. The extraction yield can be increased by synthesizing and using novel materials with favorable distribution constants (one of the thermodynamic factors) for target analytes. The extraction yield can also be increased by improving kinetic factors, for example, by developing new extraction modes. Microextraction techniques are usually non-exhaustive processes that work under the kinetic range. In such conditions, the improvement of the extraction kinetics necessarily improves the performance. Since the extraction yield and efficiency is related to how fast the analytes diffuse in samples, it is crucial to stir the sample during extraction. The stirring can be done with an external element or can be integrated with the extraction element in the same device. This article reviews the main recent advances in the so-called extraction/stirring integrated techniques with emphasis on their potential and promising approaches rather than in their applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: extraction/stirring integrated techniques; stir bar sorptive extraction; stir membrane extraction; stir cake sorptive extraction; rotating disk sorptive extraction extraction/stirring integrated techniques; stir bar sorptive extraction; stir membrane extraction; stir cake sorptive extraction; rotating disk sorptive extraction

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cárdenas, S.; Lucena, R. Recent Advances in Extraction and Stirring Integrated Techniques. Separations 2017, 4, 6.

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