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Article

Portuguese Version of COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale and COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Psychometric Properties

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School of Human and Social Sciences (ECHS), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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UFP Energy, Environment and Health Research Unit (FP-ENAS), University Fernando Pessoa (UFP), Praça 9 de Abril 349, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Mathematics (DM. UTAD), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Research Center in Business and Economics (CICEE), Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, Rua Sta. Marta 47, 5° Andar, 1150-293 Lisboa, Portugal
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ISCET—Higher Institute of Business Sciences and Tourism, Rua de Cedofeita, 285, 4050-180 Porto, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Hadi Nobari, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Maria Mendoza-Muñoz and África Martos Martínez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 1044-1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030078
Received: 2 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 10 September 2021 / Published: 11 September 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic scenario has a psychological impact on individuals and society. A higher level of perceived risk concerning COVID-19 has been found when compared to other potential health threats. A misperception of risk in contrast with the real risk may lead people to develop disruptive cognitive, affective, or behavioral responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, namely, coronaphobia. Validated instruments are needed to evaluate such responses. This work aims to validate the COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale (C19PRS) and the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19PS) in the Portuguese population. The two scales were translated from English to Portuguese using the back-translation technique. The cultural adaptation was framed in the context of establishing the validity and reliability of the instruments. In two studies, C19PRS and C19PS were validated for the adult Portuguese population (N = 1122; women = 725 (64.6%); mean age of 31.91 years old) through exploratory factorial analysis, followed by a confirmatory factorial analysis. Convergent validity was calculated by composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) values. Discriminant validity was assessed by square roots of the AVE values and their comparison with the C19PRS and C19PS dimensions’ cross-correlations. Both C19PRS and C19PS present a good adjustment model and solid reliability and validity and have significant correlations with fear of COVID-19 and COVID-19 anxiety scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale (C19PRS); COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19PS); Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS); Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale (C19PRS); COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19PS); Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS); Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leite, Â.; Vidal, D.G.; Sousa, H.F.P.e.; Dinis, M.A.P.; Magano, J. Portuguese Version of COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale and COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Psychometric Properties. Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11, 1044-1060. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030078

AMA Style

Leite Â, Vidal DG, Sousa HFPe, Dinis MAP, Magano J. Portuguese Version of COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale and COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Psychometric Properties. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education. 2021; 11(3):1044-1060. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leite, Ângela, Diogo G. Vidal, Hélder F.P.e. Sousa, Maria A.P. Dinis, and José Magano. 2021. "Portuguese Version of COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale and COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Psychometric Properties" European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 11, no. 3: 1044-1060. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030078

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