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Microbial Fuel Cell Technology—A Critical Review on Scale-Up Issues

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih 43500, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Green Energy and Environment Institute, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan
Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli 17600, Kelantan, Malaysia
Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
Green Energy Technology Research Center and Department of Materials Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shahabaldin Rezania
Processes 2021, 9(6), 985;
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 30 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 May 2021 / Published: 3 June 2021
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has attracted a great amount of attention due to its potential for organic and inorganic waste treatment concomitant with power generation. It is thus seen as a clean energy alternative. Modifications and innovations have been conducted on standalone and hybrid/coupled MFC systems to improve the power output to meet the end goal, namely, commercialization and implementation into existing wastewater treatment plants. As the energy generated is inversely proportional to the size of the reactor, the stacking method has been proven to boost the power output from MFC. In recent years, stacked or scale-up MFCs have also been used as a power source to provide off-grid energy, as well as for in situ assessments. These scale-up studies, however, encountered various challenges, such as cell voltage reversal. This review paper explores recent scale-up studies, identifies trends and challenges, and provides a framework for current and future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial fuel cell; clean energy; sustainability; wastewater; bioenergy; MFC; scale-up microbial fuel cell; clean energy; sustainability; wastewater; bioenergy; MFC; scale-up
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, W.H.; Chong, S.; Fang, H.-W.; Pan, K.-L.; Mohamad, M.; Lim, J.W.; Tiong, T.J.; Chan, Y.J.; Huang, C.-M.; Yang, T.C.-K. Microbial Fuel Cell Technology—A Critical Review on Scale-Up Issues. Processes 2021, 9, 985.

AMA Style

Tan WH, Chong S, Fang H-W, Pan K-L, Mohamad M, Lim JW, Tiong TJ, Chan YJ, Huang C-M, Yang TC-K. Microbial Fuel Cell Technology—A Critical Review on Scale-Up Issues. Processes. 2021; 9(6):985.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Wei H., Siewhui Chong, Hsu-Wei Fang, Kuan-Lun Pan, Mardawani Mohamad, Jun W. Lim, Timm J. Tiong, Yi J. Chan, Chao-Ming Huang, and Thomas C.-K. Yang. 2021. "Microbial Fuel Cell Technology—A Critical Review on Scale-Up Issues" Processes 9, no. 6: 985.

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