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Open AccessArticle

Simultaneous Electrochemical Generation of Ferrate and Oxygen Radicals to Blue BR Dye Degradation

1
Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental, Escuela Politécnica Nacional. P.O. Box, Quito 17-01-2759, Ecuador
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Departamento de Química, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada s/n, Pueblito de Rocha, Guanajuato 36040, Mexico
3
Escuela de Ciencias Químicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Avenida 12 de Octubre y Roca, Apartado, Quito 17-01-2184, Ecuador
4
Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 755 E. Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, NV 89119-7363, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(7), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070753
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes)
In this study, electro-oxidation (EOx) and in situ generation of ferrate ions [Fe(VI)] were tested to treat water contaminated with Blue BR dye (BBR) using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. Two electrolytic media (0.1 M HClO4 and 0.05 M Na2SO4) were evaluated for the BDD, which simultaneously produced oxygen radicals (OH) and [Fe(VI)]. The generation of [Fe(VI)] was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the effect of different current intensity values (e.g., 7 mA cm−2, 15 mA cm−2, and 30 mA cm−2) was assessed during BBR degradation tests. The discoloration of BBR was followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. When the EOx process was used alone, only 78% BBR discoloration was achieved. The best electrochemical discoloration conditions were found using 0.05 M Na2SO4 and 30 mA cm−2. Using these conditions, overall BBR discoloration values up to 98%, 95%, and 87% with 12 mM, 6 mM, and 1 mM of FeSO4, respectively, were achieved. In the case of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, the EOx process showed only a 37% COD reduction, whereas combining [Fe(VI)] generation using 12 mM of FeSO4 achieved an up to 61% COD reduction after 90 min. The evolution of reaction byproducts (oxalic acid) was performed using liquid chromatography analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: advace oxitadion processes (AOP); electro-oxidation; ferrate ion; BBR dye advace oxitadion processes (AOP); electro-oxidation; ferrate ion; BBR dye
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Chiliquinga, M.; Espinoza-Montero, P.J.; Rodríguez, O.; Picos, A.; Bandala, E.R.; Gutiérrez-Granados, S.; Peralta-Hernández, J.M. Simultaneous Electrochemical Generation of Ferrate and Oxygen Radicals to Blue BR Dye Degradation. Processes 2020, 8, 753.

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