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Food Waste Composting and Microbial Community Structure Profiling

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Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies Building, University of Malaya, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
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Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
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Faculty of Applied Science, UCSI University (South Wing), Cheras, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
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Nutrition and Dietetics Program, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(6), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060723
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 14 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Waste towards Green Growth)
Over the last decade, food waste has been one of the major issues globally as it brings a negative impact on the environment and health. Rotting discharges methane, causing greenhouse effect and adverse health effects due to pathogenic microorganisms or toxic leachates that reach agricultural land and water system. As a solution, composting is implemented to manage and reduce food waste in line with global sustainable development goals (SDGs). This review compiles input on the types of organic composting, its characteristics, physico-chemical properties involved, role of microbes and tools available in determining the microbial community structure. Composting types: vermi-composting, windrow composting, aerated static pile composting and in-vessel composting are discussed. The diversity of microorganisms in each of the three stages in composting is highlighted and the techniques used to determine the microbial community structure during composting such as biochemical identification, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and single strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP), microarray analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS) are discussed. Overall, a good compost, not only reduces waste issues, but also contributes substantially to the economic and social sectors of a nation. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic food waste; sustainability; composting; microbial community structure organic food waste; sustainability; composting; microbial community structure
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Palaniveloo, K.; Amran, M.A.; Norhashim, N.A.; Mohamad-Fauzi, N.; Peng-Hui, F.; Hui-Wen, L.; Kai-Lin, Y.; Jiale, L.; Chian-Yee, M.G.; Jing-Yi, L.; Gunasekaran, B.; Razak, S.A. Food Waste Composting and Microbial Community Structure Profiling. Processes 2020, 8, 723.

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