High Enzymatic Recovery and Purification of Xylooligosaccharides from Empty Fruit Bunch via Nanofiltration
Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodaicho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
Research Center for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Raya; Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911, West Java, Indonesia
Graduate School of Science, Technology and Innovation, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodaicho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
Research Center for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Raya Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911, Indonesia
National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (BSN), Gedung Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), Jl. M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(5), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050619
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 16 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Processing and Conversion Systems)
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are attracting an ever-increasing amount of interest for use as food prebiotics. In this study, we used efficient membrane separation technology to convert lignocellulosic materials into a renewable source of XOS. This study revealed a dual function of nanofiltration membranes by first achieving a high yield of xylobiose (a main component of XOS) from alkali-pretreated empty fruit bunch (EFB) hydrolysate, and then by achieving a high degree of separation for xylose as a monosaccharide product. Alkali pretreatment could increase the xylan content retention of raw EFB from 23.4% to 26.9%, which eventually contributed to higher yields of both xylobiose and xylose. Nanofiltration increased the total amount of XYN10Ks_480 endoxylanase produced from recombinant Streptomyces lividans 1326 without altering its specific activity. Concentrated XYN10Ks_480 endoxylanase was applied to the recovery of both xylobiose and xylose from alkali-pretreated EFB hydrolysate. Xylobiose and xylose yields reached 41.1% and 17.3%, respectively, and when unconcentrated XYN10Ks_480 endoxylanase was applied, those yields reached 35.1% and 8.3%, respectively. The last step in nanofiltration was to separate xylobiose over xylose, and 41.3 g.L−1 xylobiose (90.1% purity over xylose) was achieved. This nanofiltration method should shorten the processes used to obtain XOS as a high-value end product from lignocellulosic biomass.