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Open AccessArticle

Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of Hydrofluoroolefins (HFO) Refrigerants in Commercial Air-Conditioning Systems for Sustainable Environment

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890, Pakistan
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Research Centre for Carbon Solutions, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
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Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad 65188, Sweden
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School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences & Technology, H-12, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering & Design Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
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Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Yalova University, 77200 Yalova, Turkey
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Sotacarbo S.p.A., Grande Miniera di Serbariu, 09013 Carbonia, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020187
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2020 / Accepted: 31 January 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Energy Conversion Systems and Emission Control)
Global warming is one of most severe environmental concerns that our planet is facing today. One of its causes is the previous generation of refrigerants that, upon release, remain in the atmosphere for longer periods and contribute towards global warming. This issue could potentially be solved by replacing the previous generation’s high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants with environmentally friendly refrigerants. This scenario requires an analysis of new refrigerants for a comparison of the thermodynamic properties of the previously used refrigerants. In the present research, a numerical study was conducted to analyze the thermodynamic performance of specifically low GWP hydrofluoroolefens (HFO) refrigerants for an actual vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC) with a constant degree of 3 K superheat. The output parameters included the refrigeration effect, compressor work input, the coefficient of performance (COP), and the volumetric refrigeration capacity (VRC), all of which were calculated by varying the condenser pressure from 6 to 12 bars and vapor pressure from 0.7 to 1.9 bars. Results showed that R1234ze(Z) clearly possessed the desired thermodynamic performance. The drop in refrigeration effect for R1234ze(Z) was merely 14.6% less than that of R134a at a 12 bar condenser pressure; this was minimum drop among candidate refrigerants. The drop in the COP was the minimum for R1234ze(Z)—5.1% less than that of R134a at a 9 bar condenser pressure and 4.7% less than that of R134a at a 1.9 bar evaporator pressure, whereas the COP values of the other refrigerants dropped more drastically at higher condenser pressures. R1234ze(Z) possessed favorable thermodynamic characteristics, with a GWP of 7, and it can serve as an alternative refrigerant for refrigeration systems for a sustainable environment.
Keywords: alternative refrigerants; global warming potential; vapor compression refrigeration cycle; modeling and simulation of energy systems; HFOs; R134a; R1234ze(Z) alternative refrigerants; global warming potential; vapor compression refrigeration cycle; modeling and simulation of energy systems; HFOs; R134a; R1234ze(Z)
MDPI and ACS Style

Farooq, M.; Hamayoun, A.; Naqvi, M.; Nawaz, S.; Usman, M.; Naqvi, S.R.; Imran, M.; Nadeem, R.; Razi, A.; Turan, A.; Pettinau, A.; Andresen, J.M. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of Hydrofluoroolefins (HFO) Refrigerants in Commercial Air-Conditioning Systems for Sustainable Environment. Processes 2020, 8, 187.

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