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Review

Bio-Resin Production through Ethylene Unsaturated Carbon Using Vegetable Oils

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Aerospace Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC), Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
3
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
5
Aerospace Manufacturing Innovation Center, Aerospace Malaysia Innovation Centre (AMIC), Level 1, MIGHT Building, Blok 3517, Jalan Teknokrat 5, Cyberjaya, Selangor 63000, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010048
Received: 22 July 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy Systems, Material Management, and Sustainability)
Bio-resins are bio-based materials derived from vegetable resources, especially from vegetable seed oils. It is widely known that bio-resources are renewable, highly available, and sustainable. Resins and most polymers are largely derived from petroleum-based sources that are known to pose chemical risks. Resins have practical applications in printing inks, plasticisers and diluents, as well as in coating materials. Vegetable oils possess a large number of oxirane groups, which are essential for epoxidation to occur, resulting in the production of bio-resins. This undeniably serves as a promising candidate for competing with fossil-fuel-derived petroleum-based products. Thus, the aim of this review paper is to highlight aspects related to the production of bio-resins, including the chemical route of vegetable oil epoxidation process and its influencing factors, the reaction kinetics, bio-resins and the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of bio-resins, along with their applications. The resins industry has seen some remarkable progress towards the commercialisation of several bio-resins originating from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, castor oil, and linseed oil. This success has undoubtedly intensified further efforts in fields related to bio-resin applications. Research and development is ongoing with the aim of customising a feasible formulation for the synthesis of bio-resins with the desired properties for catering to various applications View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-resins; vegetable oil; epoxy; epoxidation; bio-products; bio-fuel bio-resins; vegetable oil; epoxy; epoxidation; bio-products; bio-fuel
MDPI and ACS Style

A. Latif, F.E.; Zainal Abidin, Z.; Cardona, F.; Awang Biak, D.R.; Abdan, K.; Mohd Tahir, P.; Kan Ern, L. Bio-Resin Production through Ethylene Unsaturated Carbon Using Vegetable Oils. Processes 2020, 8, 48. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010048

AMA Style

A. Latif FE, Zainal Abidin Z, Cardona F, Awang Biak DR, Abdan K, Mohd Tahir P, Kan Ern L. Bio-Resin Production through Ethylene Unsaturated Carbon Using Vegetable Oils. Processes. 2020; 8(1):48. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010048

Chicago/Turabian Style

A. Latif, Farah E., Zurina Zainal Abidin, Francisco Cardona, Dayang R. Awang Biak, Khalina Abdan, Paridah Mohd Tahir, and Liew Kan Ern. 2020. "Bio-Resin Production through Ethylene Unsaturated Carbon Using Vegetable Oils" Processes 8, no. 1: 48. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010048

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