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Effects of Bromelain and Trypsin Hydrolysis on the Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Roasted Butterfly Pea Seeds

1
Department of Agricultural and Food Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia
2
Centre for Biodiversity Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia
3
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(8), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080534
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction, Characterization and Pharmacology of Natural Products)
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Abstract

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) is a traditional medicinal and edible herb, whose health-promoting benefits have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. In this study, the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and antibacterial activities of raw and roasted (200 °C, 10–20 min) butterfly pea seeds were investigated. Roasting reduced the yield of seed aqueous extracts, but it increased the TPC and FRAP values, hence the reducing ability, of the extracts. Bromelain hydrolysis enhanced the TPC and TFC of the roasted seeds up to 2- and 18-fold higher, respectively. Trypsin hydrolysis drastically increased the TPC, but not TFC, of roasted seeds; trypsin-hydrolyzed, 20 min roasted sample had the highest TPC (54.07 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg) among all samples. Bromelain hydrolysis significantly improved the antioxidant activity of the roasted seed samples, where the antioxidant activity of bromelain-hydrolyzed, 20 min roasted sample was about 50% greater than the non-hydrolyzed 20 min roasted sample. Trypsin hydrolysis raised the FRAP values of the 20 min roasted sample to 70.28 mg Fe(II) equivalent/g, the highest among all samples. Nevertheless, trypsin only weakly elevated the ABTS scavenging activity of the roasted samples, showing no enhancement of the DPPH scavenging activity. On the other hand, only bromelain hydrolysates of raw and 10 min roasted seeds were active against Staphylococcus aureus. Taken together, bromelain hydrolysis can be used to enhance the extractable phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity of roasted butterfly pea seeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: roasted butterfly pea; enzymatic hydrolysis; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; antibacterial activity roasted butterfly pea; enzymatic hydrolysis; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; antibacterial activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ee, K.-Y.; Khoo, L.-Y.; Ng, W.-J.; Wong, F.-C.; Chai, T.-T. Effects of Bromelain and Trypsin Hydrolysis on the Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Roasted Butterfly Pea Seeds. Processes 2019, 7, 534.

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