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Qualitative Fingerprint Analysis and Multidirectional Assessment of Different Crude Extracts and Essential Oil from Wild Artemisia santonicum L.

1
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Konya 42130, Turkey
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 04000 Košice, Slovakia
4
Agricultural and Molecular Research and Service Institute, University of Nyíregyháza, 4400 Nyíregyháza, Hungary
5
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, 230 Réduit 80837, Mauritius
6
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul 34668, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These Authors contributed equally to this work.
Processes 2019, 7(8), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080522
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction, Characterization and Pharmacology of Natural Products)
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Abstract

Artemisia species are used as folk medicines in several countries. This work was aimed to shed more light on the effect of methanol, water, ethyl acetate extracts, and essential oil (EO) of A. santonicum on selected enzymes (cholinesterase, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) as well of their antioxidant and pharmacological effects. The chemical profile of the essential oil was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, while the extracts were chemically characterized by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Forty-nine constituents were identified and camphor (36.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.2%), α-thujone (10.1%), borneol (4.5%), and β-thujone (3.6%) were the major components. Overall, 45, 74, and 67 components were identified from the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts, respectively. The EO and extracts showed significant antioxidant properties, in a cell-free model; particularly, methanol and water extracts revealed promising sources of antioxidant compounds. Additionally, we evaluated protective effects of EO and extracts in isolated rat colon tissue challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as an ex vivo model of colon inflammation, and human colon cancer HCT116 cell line. Particularly, we observed that, among all tested samples, A. santonicum ethyl acetate displayed the best pharmacological profile, being able to blunt LPS-induced levels of all tested biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, including colon nitrites, lactate dehydrogenase, prostaglandin E2, and serotonin. Additionally, this extract was also able to reduce HCT116 cell viability, thus suggesting potential antiproliferative effects against colon cancer cells. Based on our results, A. santonicum has great potential for developing novel functional agents including pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and nutraceuticals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Artemisia; essential oil; bioactive compounds; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition Artemisia; essential oil; bioactive compounds; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition
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Ferrante, C.; Zengin, G.; Menghini, L.; Diuzheva, A.; Jekő, J.; Cziáky, Z.; Recinella, L.; Chiavaroli, A.; Leone, S.; Brunetti, L.; Lobine, D.; Senkardes, I.; Mahomoodally, M.F.; Orlando, G. Qualitative Fingerprint Analysis and Multidirectional Assessment of Different Crude Extracts and Essential Oil from Wild Artemisia santonicum L.. Processes 2019, 7, 522.

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