Next Article in Journal
Adjustable Robust Optimization for Planning Logistics Operations in Downstream Oil Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Multi-Attribute Decision-Making: Applying a Modified Brown–Gibson Model and RETScreen Software to the Optimal Location Process of Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Plants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of Hydrophilic Drug Encapsulation and Controlled Release Using a Modified Nanoprecipitation Method
Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Nitrogen Absorption on Microstructure, Properties and Cytotoxicity Assessment of 316L Stainless Steel Alloy Reinforced with Boron and Niobium

Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan 32610, Malaysia
School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitas PERTAMINA, Jakarta 12220, Indonesia
Centre of Excellence in Science & Applied Technologies, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Defense Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(8), 506;
Received: 23 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
PDF [2296 KB, uploaded 7 August 2019]


In the past, 316L stainless steel (SS) has been the material of choice for implant manufacturing. However, the leaching of nickel ions from the SS matrix limits its usefulness as an implant material. In this study, an efficient approach for controlling the leaching of ions and improving its properties is presented. The composition of SS was modified with the addition of boron and niobium, which was followed by sintering in nitrogen atmosphere for 8 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the formation of strong nitrides, indicating the diffusion of nitrogen into the SS matrix. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that a nitride layer was deposited on the sample surface, thereby helping to control the leaching of metal ions. The corrosion resistance of the alloy systems in artificial saliva solution indicated minimal weight loss, indicating improved corrosion resistance. The cytotoxicity assessment of the alloy system showed that the developed modified stainless steel alloys are compatible with living cells and can be used as implant materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: implant; stainless steel; nickel; leaching; nitrogen; cytotoxicity implant; stainless steel; nickel; leaching; nitrogen; cytotoxicity

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, S.; Abdul Rani, A.M.; Mufti, R.A.; Azam, F.I.; Hastuty, S.; Baig, Z.; Hussain, M.; Shehzad, N. The Influence of Nitrogen Absorption on Microstructure, Properties and Cytotoxicity Assessment of 316L Stainless Steel Alloy Reinforced with Boron and Niobium. Processes 2019, 7, 506.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top