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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Nitrogen Absorption on Microstructure, Properties and Cytotoxicity Assessment of 316L Stainless Steel Alloy Reinforced with Boron and Niobium

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Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan 32610, Malaysia
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School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitas PERTAMINA, Jakarta 12220, Indonesia
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Centre of Excellence in Science & Applied Technologies, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Defense Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(8), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7080506
Received: 23 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Biomedical Materials)
In the past, 316L stainless steel (SS) has been the material of choice for implant manufacturing. However, the leaching of nickel ions from the SS matrix limits its usefulness as an implant material. In this study, an efficient approach for controlling the leaching of ions and improving its properties is presented. The composition of SS was modified with the addition of boron and niobium, which was followed by sintering in nitrogen atmosphere for 8 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the formation of strong nitrides, indicating the diffusion of nitrogen into the SS matrix. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that a nitride layer was deposited on the sample surface, thereby helping to control the leaching of metal ions. The corrosion resistance of the alloy systems in artificial saliva solution indicated minimal weight loss, indicating improved corrosion resistance. The cytotoxicity assessment of the alloy system showed that the developed modified stainless steel alloys are compatible with living cells and can be used as implant materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: implant; stainless steel; nickel; leaching; nitrogen; cytotoxicity implant; stainless steel; nickel; leaching; nitrogen; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, S.; Abdul Rani, A.M.; Mufti, R.A.; Azam, F.I.; Hastuty, S.; Baig, Z.; Hussain, M.; Shehzad, N. The Influence of Nitrogen Absorption on Microstructure, Properties and Cytotoxicity Assessment of 316L Stainless Steel Alloy Reinforced with Boron and Niobium. Processes 2019, 7, 506.

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