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Thermal Analysis of Nigerian Oil Palm Biomass with Sachet-Water Plastic Wastes for Sustainable Production of Biofuel

1
Institute of Sustainable Energy (ISE), Universiti Tenaga Nasional (The Energy University), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
2
School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150, Malaysia
3
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Jalan Broga Semenyih 43500, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(7), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7070475
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies: Bridging Conventional Practices and Industry 4.0)
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Abstract

Nigeria, being the world’s largest importer of diesel-powered gen-sets, is expected to invest in bio-fuels in the future. Hence, it is important to examine the thermal properties and synergy of wastes for potential downstream resource utilization. In this study, thermal conversion as a route to reduce the exploding volume of wastes from sachet-water plastic (SWP) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) biomass was studied. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and subsequent differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used for the analysis. The effect of heating rate at 20 °C min−1 causes the increase of activation energy of the decomposition in the first-stage across all the blends (0.96 and 16.29 kJ mol−1). A similar phenomenon was seen when the heating rate was increased from 10 to 20 °C min−1 in the second-stage of decomposition. Overall, based on this study on the synergistic effects during the process, it can be deduced that co-pyrolysis can be an effective waste for energy platform. View Full-Text
Keywords: sachet-water plastic waste; oil palm empty fruit bunch; TGA-DSC analysis; activation energy; physio-thermal analysis; co-pyrolysis sachet-water plastic waste; oil palm empty fruit bunch; TGA-DSC analysis; activation energy; physio-thermal analysis; co-pyrolysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Salman, B.; Ong, M.Y.; Nomanbhay, S.; Salema, A.A.; Sankaran, R.; Show, P.L. Thermal Analysis of Nigerian Oil Palm Biomass with Sachet-Water Plastic Wastes for Sustainable Production of Biofuel. Processes 2019, 7, 475.

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