Next Article in Journal
Temporal Feature Selection for Multi-Step Ahead Reheater Temperature Prediction
Previous Article in Journal
Choline-Based Ionic Liquids as Media for the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Previous Article in Special Issue
Lipase Production by Solid-State Cultivation of Thermomyces Lanuginosus on By-Products from Cold-Pressing Oil Production
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Aqueous and Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein from Almond Cake: A Comparative Study

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Food and Nutrition Graduate Program, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-240, Brazil
3
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(7), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7070472
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
  |  
PDF [2893 KB, uploaded 24 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The almond cake is a protein- and oil-rich by-product of the mechanical expression of almond oil that has the potential to be used as a source of valuable proteins and lipids for food applications. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the individual and combined effects of solids-to-liquid ratio (SLR), reaction time, and enzyme use on oil and protein extraction yields from almond cake. A central composite rotatable design was employed to maximize the overall extractability and distribution of extracted components among the fractions generated by the aqueous (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP). Simultaneous extraction of oil and protein by the AEP was favored by the use of low SLR (1:12.82) and longer reaction times (2 h), where extraction yields of 48.2% and 70% were achieved, respectively. Increased use of enzyme (0.85%) in the EAEP resulted in higher oil (50%) and protein (75%) extraction yields in a shorter reaction time (1 h), compared with the AEP at the same reaction time (41.6% oil and 70% protein extraction). Overall, extraction conditions that favored oil and protein extraction also favored oil yield in the cream and protein yield in the skim. However, increased oil yield in the skim was observed at conditions where higher oil extraction was achieved. In addition to improving oil and protein extractability, the use of enzyme during the extraction resulted in the production of skim fractions with smaller and more soluble peptides at low pH (5.0), highlighting possible uses of the EAEP skim in food applications involving acidic pH. The implications of the use of enzyme during the extraction regarding the de-emulsification of the EAEP cream warrant further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: solubility; aqueous extraction; oil extraction; protein extraction; almond cake solubility; aqueous extraction; oil extraction; protein extraction; almond cake
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Souza, T.S.P.; Dias, F.F.G.; Koblitz, M.G.B.; M. L. N. de M. Bell, J. Aqueous and Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein from Almond Cake: A Comparative Study. Processes 2019, 7, 472.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top