Next Article in Journal
On the Use of Starch in Emulsion Polymerizations
Previous Article in Journal
The Flotation Process Can Go Green
Previous Article in Special Issue
Determination of KOSGEB Support Models for Small- and Medium-Scale Enterprises by Means of Data Envelopment Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Processes 2019, 7(3), 139;

Air-Core-Liquid-Ring (ACLR) Atomization: Influences of Gas Pressure and Atomizer Scale Up on Atomization Efficiency

Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences: Food Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [1484 KB, uploaded 6 March 2019]   |  


Air-core-liquid-ring (ACLR) atomizers present a specific type of internal mixing pneumatic atomizers, which can be used for efficient atomization of high viscous liquids. Generally, atomization efficiency is considered as a correlation between energy input and resulting droplet size. In pneumatic atomization, air-to-liquid ratio by mass (ALR) is commonly used as reference parameter of energy input. However, the pressure energy of the atomization gas is not considered in the calculation of ALR. In internal mixing ACLR atomizers, it can be assumed that this energy contributes to liquid disintegration by expansion of the gas core after exiting the atomizer. This leads to the hypothesis that droplet sizes decrease with increasing gas pressure at constant ALR. Therefore, the use of volumetric energy density (EV) as a reference parameter of energy input was investigated at different gas pressures between 0.4 and 0.8 MPa. Furthermore, scale up-related influences on the atomization efficiency of ACLR atomization were investigated by use of an atomizer with enlarged exit orifice diameter. We can conclude that EV can be applied as a reference parameter of ACLR atomization processes with different gas pressures. However, within the range investigated no clear influence of gas pressure on atomization efficiency was found. Up-scaling of ACLR atomizers allows production of similar droplet sizes, but atomization efficiency decreases with increasing exit orifice diameter. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACLR; pneumatic atomization; high viscous feeds; efficiency; scale up ACLR; pneumatic atomization; high viscous feeds; efficiency; scale up

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wittner, M.O.; Karbstein, H.P.; Gaukel, V. Air-Core-Liquid-Ring (ACLR) Atomization: Influences of Gas Pressure and Atomizer Scale Up on Atomization Efficiency. Processes 2019, 7, 139.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top