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Processes 2019, 7(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7030123

Integration of Membrane Bioreactor and Nanofiltration for the Treatment Process of Real Hospital Wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

1
NTT Hi-Tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh 700000, Vietnam
2
Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
3
Military Hospital 175, Ho Chi Minh 700000, Vietnam
4
Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
5
Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment Processes)
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Abstract

Hospital wastewater contains pharmaceutical residues, chemicals, and pathogens that cause coloration and nourish pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a medical wastewater treatment system at Military Hospital 175 (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) that combined a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system with nanofiltration (NF). The influent of the system was the wastewater discharged from the operating rooms of the hospital. The system has a capacity of 50 L/day and operates at three organic load rates (OLR) of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 kgCOD/m3day (COD: Chemical oxygen demand), in which each load rate operates for 40 days. The results showed that most nutritional criteria generally achieved positive results. Specifically, the average COD removal was shown to be consistently high throughout the three phases at 94%, 93.3%, and 92.7%, respectively. For removal of nitrogen, the system demonstrated efficiencies of 75%, 79%, and 83%, respectively, to three phases. The log removal value (LRV) for Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria were higher than four throughout the study period. The average removal efficiency for color and total iron was approximately 98% and 99%, respectively. The water quality after treatment, especially after NF, meets the Vietnamese standard of grade A. The arrangement in which the MBR preceded NF was also found to limit the amount of soil and solids entering subsequent treatment, which therefore improved the efficiency of NF, as demonstrated by the stability of post-NF transmembrane pressures throughout three cycles renewed by two backwashes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiltration; membrane bioreactor; hospital wastewater; chemical oxygen demand; total phosphorus; nitrogen compounds; pathogen contents nanofiltration; membrane bioreactor; hospital wastewater; chemical oxygen demand; total phosphorus; nitrogen compounds; pathogen contents
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Tran, T.; Nguyen, T.B.; Ho, H.L.; Le, D.A.; Lam, T.D.; Nguyen, D.C.; Hoang, A.T.; Do, T.S.; Hoang, L.; Nguyen, T.D.; Bach, L.G. Integration of Membrane Bioreactor and Nanofiltration for the Treatment Process of Real Hospital Wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Processes 2019, 7, 123.

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