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Article

Valorization of Industrial Vegetable Waste Using Dilute HCl Pretreatment

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
2
The Energy Institute of Louisiana, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
3
Department of Industrial Technology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, LA 70605, USA.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110853
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 9 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
A solid vegetable waste stream was subjected to dilute acid (HCl) pretreatment with the goal of converting the waste into a form that is amenable to biochemical processes which could include microbial lipids, biohydrogen, and volatile organic acids production. Specifically, this study was conducted to identify the most suitable pretreatment condition that maximizes the yield or concentration of sugars while minimizing the production of compounds which are inhibitory to microbes (i.e., furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and organic acids). Temperatures from 50–150 °C and HCl loading from 0–7 wt % were studied to using an orthogonal central composite response surface design with eight center points. The effects of the variables under study on the resulting concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and furans were determined using the quadratic response surface model. Results indicated that the biomass used in this study contains about 5.7 wt % cellulose and 83.8 wt % hemicellulose/pectin. Within the experimental design, the most suitable pretreatment condition was identified to be at 50 °C and 3.5 wt % HCl. A kinetic study at this condition indicated process completion at 30 mins. that produced a hydrolyzate that contains 31.30 ± 0.44 g/L sugars and 7.40 ± 0.62 g/L organic acids. At this condition, a yield of ~0.47 g sugar/g of dry solid vegetable waste was obtained. The absence of furans suggests the suitability of the resulting hydrolyzate as feedstock for biochemical processes. The results suggested that the sugar concentration of the pretreated biomass is highly affected by the presence of other compounds such as amines, amino acids, and proteins. The effect however, is minimal at low levels of HCl where the highest total sugar production was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: onion wastes; lignocellulosic biomass; organic acids; microbial inhibitors; furans onion wastes; lignocellulosic biomass; organic acids; microbial inhibitors; furans
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blue, D.; Fortela, D.L.; Holmes, W.; LaCour, D.; LeBoeuf, S.; Stelly, C.; Subramaniam, R.; Hernandez, R.; Zappi, M.E.; Revellame, E.D. Valorization of Industrial Vegetable Waste Using Dilute HCl Pretreatment. Processes 2019, 7, 853. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110853

AMA Style

Blue D, Fortela DL, Holmes W, LaCour D, LeBoeuf S, Stelly C, Subramaniam R, Hernandez R, Zappi ME, Revellame ED. Valorization of Industrial Vegetable Waste Using Dilute HCl Pretreatment. Processes. 2019; 7(11):853. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110853

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blue, Donald, Dhan L. Fortela, William Holmes, David LaCour, Shayla LeBoeuf, Cody Stelly, Ramalingam Subramaniam, Rafael Hernandez, Mark E. Zappi, and Emmanuel D. Revellame. 2019. "Valorization of Industrial Vegetable Waste Using Dilute HCl Pretreatment" Processes 7, no. 11: 853. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110853

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