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Article

Theoretical Analysis of Forced Segmented Temperature Gradients in Liquid Chromatography

1
Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Institute of Analysis and Numerics, Otto von Guericke University, Universitätspl. 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
3
Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
4
Institute of Process Engineering, Otto von Guericke University, Universitätspl. 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany.
Processes 2019, 7(11), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110846
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 2 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods in Process and Systems Engineering)
An equilibrium model is applied to study the effect of forced temperature gradients introduced through heat exchange via specific segments of the wall of a chromatographic column operating with a liquid mobile phase. For illustration of the principle, the column is divided into two segments in such a manner that the first segment is kept at a fixed reference temperature, while the temperature of the second segment can be changed stepwise through fixed heating or cooling over the column wall to modulate the migration speeds of the solute concentration profiles. The method of characteristics is used to obtain the solution trajectories analytically. It is demonstrated that appropriate heating or cooling in the second segment can accelerate or decelerate the specific concentration profiles in order to improve certain performance criteria. The results obtained verify that the proposed analysis is well suited to evaluate the application of forced segmented temperature gradients. The suggested gradient procedure provides the potential to reduce the cycle time and, thus, improving the production rate of the chromatographic separation process compared to conventional isothermal (isocratic) operation. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid chromatography; equilibrium model; temperature gradients; external heating or cooling source; method of characteristics; periodic injection; cycle time; production rate liquid chromatography; equilibrium model; temperature gradients; external heating or cooling source; method of characteristics; periodic injection; cycle time; production rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayat, A.; An, X.; Qamar, S.; Warnecke, G.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A. Theoretical Analysis of Forced Segmented Temperature Gradients in Liquid Chromatography. Processes 2019, 7, 846. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110846

AMA Style

Hayat A, An X, Qamar S, Warnecke G, Seidel-Morgenstern A. Theoretical Analysis of Forced Segmented Temperature Gradients in Liquid Chromatography. Processes. 2019; 7(11):846. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110846

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayat, Adnan, Xinghai An, Shamsul Qamar, Gerald Warnecke, and Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern. 2019. "Theoretical Analysis of Forced Segmented Temperature Gradients in Liquid Chromatography" Processes 7, no. 11: 846. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110846

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