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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

An Integrated Approach to Water-Energy Nexus in Shale-Gas Production

1
The Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122, USA
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Department of Energy Engineering, Baghdad University, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2018, 6(5), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6050052
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Energy Systems)
Shale gas production is associated with significant usage of fresh water and discharge of wastewater. Consequently, there is a necessity to create proper management strategies for water resources in shale gas production and to integrate conventional energy sources (e.g., shale gas) with renewables (e.g., solar energy). The objective of this study is to develop a design framework for integrating water and energy systems including multiple energy sources, the cogeneration process and desalination technologies in treating wastewater and providing fresh water for shale gas production. Solar energy is included to provide thermal power directly to a multi-effect distillation plant (MED) exclusively (to be more feasible economically) or indirect supply through a thermal energy storage system. Thus, MED is driven by direct or indirect solar energy and excess or direct cogeneration process heat. The proposed thermal energy storage along with the fossil fuel boiler will allow for the dual-purpose system to operate at steady-state by managing the dynamic variability of solar energy. Additionally, electric production is considered to supply a reverse osmosis plant (RO) without connecting to the local electric grid. A multi-period mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) is developed and applied to discretize the operation period to track the diurnal fluctuations of solar energy. The solution of the optimization program determines the optimal mix of solar energy, thermal storage and fossil fuel to attain the maximum annual profit of the entire system. A case study is solved for water treatment and energy management for Eagle Ford Basin in Texas. View Full-Text
Keywords: cogeneration; process integration; solar energy; thermal storage; desalination; optimization cogeneration; process integration; solar energy; thermal storage; desalination; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Aboosi, F.Y.; El-Halwagi, M.M. An Integrated Approach to Water-Energy Nexus in Shale-Gas Production. Processes 2018, 6, 52.

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