Next Article in Journal
Fuel Gas Network Synthesis Using Block Superstructure
Next Article in Special Issue
Using Field Data for Energy Efficiency Based on Maintenance and Operational Optimisation. A Step towards PHM in Process Plants
Previous Article in Journal
Mathematical Modeling and Parameter Estimation of Intracellular Signaling Pathway: Application to LPS-induced NFκB Activation and TNFα Production in Macrophages
Previous Article in Special Issue
Methanol Synthesis: Optimal Solution for a Better Efficiency of the Process
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Bleaching of Neutral Cotton Seed Oil Using Organic Activated Carbon in a Batch System: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms

Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, P.O Box 55, Maroua, Cameroon
National Advanced School of Engineering, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 55, Maroua, Cameroon
Department of Food and Bio-resource Technology, College of Technology, University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39, Bamenda, Cameroon
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2018, 6(3), 22;
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
PDF [1817 KB, uploaded 5 March 2018]


In the processing of cotton and neem seeds to obtain oil for diverse uses, enormous quantities of seed husk are generated as waste, which when not properly disposed of, poses environmental problems. One way of reducing this waste is to use it for the production of activated carbon (AC) for its multiple applications. In this work, activated carbon was produced from cotton and neem seed husks by carbonization followed by acid activation. The prepared ACs were characterized for its porosity and surface properties as well as for its ability to bleach neutral cotton seed oil. The prepared ACs are very efficient in the decoloration process, as they removed about 96–98% of the pigments compared to 98.4% removal with commercial bleaching earth. Temperature had a pronounced effect on the bleaching of neutral cotton seed oil. Maximum adsorption was observed at 60 °C for a contact time of 45 min. The adsorption kinetics were modelled by the intra-particle and the pseudo-second order equations while the adsorption isotherms followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. It is concluded that the organic ACs are efficient in pigment removal from neutral cotton seed oil and therefore are potential bleaching agents for the vegetable oil industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated carbon; oil bleaching; cotton; neem; isotherms; modeling activated carbon; oil bleaching; cotton; neem; isotherms; modeling

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chetima, A.; Wahabou, A.; Zomegni, G.; Ntieche Rahman, A.; Bup Nde, D. Bleaching of Neutral Cotton Seed Oil Using Organic Activated Carbon in a Batch System: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms. Processes 2018, 6, 22.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top