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Article

The Impact of Oriented Perforations on Fracture Propagation and Complexity in Hydraulic Fracturing

1
Center for Rock Instability and Seismicity Research, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
2
Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2018, 6(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110213
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media)
To better understand the interaction between hydraulic fracture and oriented perforation, a fully coupled finite element method (FEM)-based hydraulic-geomechanical fracture model accommodating gas sorption and damage has been developed. Damage conforms to a maximum stress criterion in tension and to Mohr–Coulomb limits in shear with heterogeneity represented by a Weibull distribution. Fracturing fluid flow, rock deformation and damage, and fracture propagation are collectively represented to study the complexity of hydraulic fracture initiation with perforations present in the near-wellbore region. The model is rigorously validated against experimental observations replicating failure stresses and styles during uniaxial compression and then hydraulic fracturing. The influences of perforation angle, in situ stress state, initial pore pressure, and properties of the fracturing fluid are fully explored. The numerical results show good agreement with experimental observations and the main features of the hydraulic fracturing process in heterogeneous rock are successfully captured. A larger perforation azimuth (angle) from the direction of the maximum principal stress induces a relatively larger curvature of the fracture during hydraulic fracture reorientation. Hydraulic fractures do not always initiate at the oriented perforations and the fractures induced in hydraulic fracturing are not always even and regular. Hydraulic fractures would initiate both around the wellbore and the oriented perforations when the perforation angle is >75°. For the liquid-based hydraulic fracturing, the critical perforation angle increases from 70° to 80°, with an increase in liquid viscosity from 10−3 Pa·s to 1 Pa·s. While for the gas fracturing, the critical perforation angle remains 62° to 63°. This study is of great significance in further understanding the near-wellbore impacts on hydraulic fracture propagation and complexity. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; gas fracturing; oriented perforation; fracture propagation; damage mechanics; fluid viscosity hydraulic fracturing; gas fracturing; oriented perforation; fracture propagation; damage mechanics; fluid viscosity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, L.; Li, L.; Elsworth, D.; Zhi, S.; Yu, Y. The Impact of Oriented Perforations on Fracture Propagation and Complexity in Hydraulic Fracturing. Processes 2018, 6, 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110213

AMA Style

Liu L, Li L, Elsworth D, Zhi S, Yu Y. The Impact of Oriented Perforations on Fracture Propagation and Complexity in Hydraulic Fracturing. Processes. 2018; 6(11):213. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110213

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Liyuan, Lianchong Li, Derek Elsworth, Sheng Zhi, and Yongjun Yu. 2018. "The Impact of Oriented Perforations on Fracture Propagation and Complexity in Hydraulic Fracturing" Processes 6, no. 11: 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6110213

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