No unified electromagnetic anti-fouling mechanism is currently available. Most research has focused on the effects of structural parameters and water quality parameters on electromagnetic fields; variations in water quality parameters under the influence of electromagnetic fields have not been reported. A variable-frequency vertical electromagnetic field is proposed in this study. Relationships between conductivity, pH value, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, fouling resistance, and magnetic acting time were carefully analyzed using statistical analysis. Results show that the conductivity difference was the most explanatory predictive variable on magnetic acting time in the multiple stepwise regression model. Magnetic acting time has a greater impact on conductivity than pH value and dissolved oxygen. Conductivity is used as an adaptive feedback control parameter for the optimum anti-fouling state. Fouling resistance on the heat-exchanging surface of the magnetic experiment was smaller than that of the contrast experiment. The anti-fouling efficiency in 1 kHz and 5 kHz magnetic and contrast experiments was 91.23% and 46.97%, respectively. Better anti-fouling performance was realized under the influence of low-frequency electromagnetic fields, confirming that physical water treatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to eliminate heat exchanger fouling. This research serves as a reference for the development of an electromagnetic-adaptive closed-loop water treatment device.
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