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Article

Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière Essential Oil Alleviates Pain and Inflammation with No Toxicity in Rodent

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy King Saud University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Laboratory of Natural Substances, Pharmacology, Environment, Modeling, Health and Quality of Life (SNAMOPEQ), Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez 30000, Morocco
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Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Imouzzer Street, P.O. Box 2202, Fez 30000, Morocco
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Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Laboratory of Bioresources, Biotechnology, Ethnopharmacology and Health, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed First, Boulevard Mohamed VI, BP: 717, Oujda 60000, Morocco
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antony Kam, Shining Loo and Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Processes 2022, 10(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030581
Received: 9 February 2022 / Revised: 7 March 2022 / Accepted: 9 March 2022 / Published: 17 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Drug Discovery and Development)
Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière is an endemic tree with spiritual value, and it was used since immemorial time in folk medicine. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin tests) and analgesic effects (hot plate and acetic acid writhing tests) of the cedarwood essential oil, as well as inspect any toxicity (acute toxicity), using several in vivo assays. Following the acetic acid writhing test and the hot plate test, the EO presented an excellent analgesic effect compared to the controls, especially with the dose of 50 mg/kg. Similar results were found while assessing the anti-inflammatory potential in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin assays. The acute toxicity assessment and the subsequent monitoring of the animals, the biochemical analysis, and the relative organ weight, demonstrated a total safety of the EO. The GC/MS analysis of the composition revealed that the major compounds contained in this EO are beta-himachalene (51.95%), followed by alpha-himachalene (15.82%), and gamma-himachalene (12.15%). This study supports the usage of this tree EO to alleviate pain and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cedar; cedarwood; natural products; analgesia; in vivo testing; acute toxicity cedar; cedarwood; natural products; analgesia; in vivo testing; acute toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Kamaly, O.; Saleh, A.; Al Sfouk, A.; Alanazi, A.S.; Parvez, M.K.; Ousaaid, D.; Assouguem, A.; Mechchate, H.; Bouhrim, M. Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière Essential Oil Alleviates Pain and Inflammation with No Toxicity in Rodent. Processes 2022, 10, 581. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030581

AMA Style

Al Kamaly O, Saleh A, Al Sfouk A, Alanazi AS, Parvez MK, Ousaaid D, Assouguem A, Mechchate H, Bouhrim M. Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière Essential Oil Alleviates Pain and Inflammation with No Toxicity in Rodent. Processes. 2022; 10(3):581. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030581

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al Kamaly, Omkulthom, Asmaa Saleh, Aisha Al Sfouk, Ashwag S. Alanazi, Mohammad Khalid Parvez, Driss Ousaaid, Amine Assouguem, Hamza Mechchate, and Mohamed Bouhrim. 2022. "Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière Essential Oil Alleviates Pain and Inflammation with No Toxicity in Rodent" Processes 10, no. 3: 581. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030581

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