# Battery Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Full-Electric Marine Applications

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{x}), sulfur oxide (SO

_{x}), and particulate matter (PM) [4,5]. Additionally, according to the International Marine Organization (IMO), it is predicted that ships all over the world will be responsible for 12–18% of global carbon dioxide (CO

_{2}) emissions by 2050 if left unregulated [6]. That is why IMO has set strict regulations to lower the level of GHG emissions in the marine transport sector [7]. Electrification of maritime transport systems is a promising solution to meet the IMO regulations. In this respect, the use of battery energy storage on board vessels has been growing in order to reduce or eliminate GHG emissions. However, there are significant challenges surrounding large battery systems for full-electric marine applications, such as the high cost of the batteries at the system level, safety concerns, and battery thermal management [8].

## 2. Target Ship and Requirements

- The battery system is integrated into the vessel through a DC link with a fixed voltage of 1000 V.
- The battery cells operate within the state of charge (SOC) of 90–10%. In other words, the maximum depth of discharge (DOD) is 80%.
- The battery system has to fulfill 10 years of operation.

## 3. Baseline Battery System and HESS Topologies

## 4. Specifications of Battery Cells and DC/DC Converter

## 5. Battery Lifetime Model

## 6. Sizing Methodology

#### 6.1. Energy Management Strategy

#### 6.2. Sizing Flowchart

## 7. Results and Discussion

#### 7.1. Battery Cost Analysis

#### 7.2. Battery System Losses

#### 7.3. Battery Weight

## 8. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Damen RSD-E Tug 2513 [23].

**Figure 4.**Number of cycles versus DOD [29].

**Figure 10.**Optimal power split between HE and HP battery packs in HESS: (

**a**) primary profile, (

**b**) secondary profile.

Parameter | Value | |
---|---|---|

Chemistry | NMC (HE cell) | LTO (HP cell) |

Capacity | 50 Ah | 23 Ah |

Nominal voltage | 3.65 V | 2.3 V |

Standard charge/discharge C-rate | 1/1 | 4/4 |

Energy density | 206 Wh/kg | 96 Wh/kg |

Weight | 0.885 kg | 0.55 kg |

Internal resistance | 1.5 mΩ | 1.1 mΩ |

Battery cost | 150 € | 380 € |

DC/DC converter efficiency | 0.98 | |

DC/DC cost | 85 €/kW |

Monotype | Monotype | HESS | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Cell type | HE | HP | HE | HP |

${N}_{s}$ | 274 | 435 | 274 | 435 |

${N}_{P}$ | 60 | 62 | 29 | 17 |

Total number of cells | 16,440 | 26,970 | 7946 | 7395 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Akbarzadeh, M.; De Smet, J.; Stuyts, J.
Battery Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Full-Electric Marine Applications. *Processes* **2022**, *10*, 2418.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112418

**AMA Style**

Akbarzadeh M, De Smet J, Stuyts J.
Battery Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Full-Electric Marine Applications. *Processes*. 2022; 10(11):2418.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112418

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Akbarzadeh, Mohsen, Jasper De Smet, and Jeroen Stuyts.
2022. "Battery Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Full-Electric Marine Applications" *Processes* 10, no. 11: 2418.
https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112418