Enhancing Fun through Gamification to Improve Engagement in MOOC
2.1. Towards a Hybrid MOOC
2.2. Virtual Learning Communities
2.3. Gamification Principles
2.4. Gamification and VLC
- Progress bar, associated with the additional functionality of the groups, “Units”, which serve to organize the collection and ordering of group publications, managing the chaos that often occurs with so much published information. Members of group are able to mark the publications of each unit seen, checking in the bar its level of progress.
- Digital badges that Facebook itself automatically associates according to the degree or type of participation of members in the group. These, when obtained, are associated with the name of the member who has obtained it, appearing in all the publications made within group. Facebook Groups currently offers 10 different badges .
- Different degrees of “likes” (I like it, I love it, it saddens me, etc.), comments and reshares. Although these options are not specific to groups, they are interesting as gamification elements.
3. Materials and Methods
3.2. Virtual Learning Community (Facebook Group)
3.3. Applied Gamification
3.3.1. MOOC and VLC gamification
- Asynchronous activities: A total of 12 exercises distributed within the lessons, in which the student can put into practice what he has learned in the lesson at his own pace, and which encourage him to share the result in the form of a publication in the virtual learning community, thus seeking a flow of content from the MOOC to the VLC [8,31]. They were proposed activities such as creating a profile in the social networks explained and sharing it in the VLC, or looking for additional information about the contents, also sharing it.
- Synchronous activities: 4 interactive live activities were proposed, in form of a broadcast via YouTube video platform, using “Hangouts on-air”  live videoconferencing option. Any student with the link could view the live event and participate in the chat on the right side of the video.
- “Building digital identity”: In this event, the professor proposed a collaborative analysis of what actions are carried out on the Internet that leave their mark on the digital identity of any person. We used the chat of the YouTube retransmission through which to participate live; the professor was working on the ideas he was reading written in the chat.
- “What about us on Internet”: In this case was made use of the Kahoot! platform of questions, which allows to use it to apply gamification, given its format of a contest. It was used live, allowing anyone to participate who entered the platform, via web or mobile app, and wrote the specific code provided during the live event for the space created. Through a survey, the activity proposed to participants to make different Internet searches about their name and surname, and to see what information appeared from them, analyzing the results the teacher and contributing ideas.
- “Interview with...”: The last two events had the same configuration, they were two interviews, one per week, to experts in the subject of each week module. The event was designed for maximum participation and protagonism of the students. Four days before the event, a link was sent to a space in the Sli.do questions and answers platform, where any MOOC student could write a question on his or her behalf or anonymously, leaving the question published for anyone to see and vote for. The most voted questions were those that were asked to each one of the interviewees.
3.3.2. Gamified Model
3.4. Data Collection
- MiriadaX allows you to know the number of students enrolled, how many have started and how many have finished.
- Facebook Group offers very detailed statistics, showing information such as active members in the group, number of publications detailed by date, or visits and reactions to publications.
- YouTube allows to know in a very complete way the visualizations of the videos and of the live broadcasts.
- Sli.do and Kahoot! also provide statistics of participation, although they are very basic, for the purpose of the experience have been enough.
4.1. Live Events
4.2. Participation in the VLC
4.3. Satisfaction Survey
5. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|Asynchronous Activities||MiriadaX (MOOC platform)|
|Virtual Learning Communities||Facebook Group||Likes|
|Enrolled||Started||Finished (100%)||% (Enrolled)||% (Started)|
|Finished (75%)||% (Enrolled)||% (Started)|
|VLC (Facebook Group)|
|Live Events (Synchronous Activities)|
|Building Digital Identity||What about Us on Internet||Interview with... (1)||Interview with... (2)|
|Streaming duration (min:sec)||32:25||26:05||33:01||27:41|
|Until end of MOOC (25/09/2018)||Period||22 days||15 days||7 days||1 day|
|After finishing MOOC 26/09/2018 to 01/04/2019||Views||3290||1407||672||664|
|Q1. Enjoyment||I had fun with the MOOC|
|Q2. Gamification||I felt like I was in a game in the MOOC|
|Q3. Participation||I have shared in the Facebook community the proposed activities of the course|
|Q4. Participation (a, b, c, d e)||Participation in the Facebook group (a) reading, (b) publishing, (c) commenting to others, (d) likes and (e) sharing publications|
|Q5. Motivation (a, b, c)||It encourages me, when I publish something, that my publications: (a) have comments, (b) are shared and (c) have likes|
|Q6. Engagement||I have felt part of the community|
|Q7. Completion||I’ve passed the MOOC|
|Q1. I had Fun with the MOOC|
|Strongly Disagree||Disagree||Neither Agree nor Disagree||Agree||Strongly Agree|
|Q2. I felt like I was in a game in the MOOC||Strongly Disagree||16.82%||39.19%||10.53%||4.72%||2.26%|
|Neither Agree nor Disagree||25.23%||12.16%||50.88%||36.22%||12.03%|
|Q6. I have felt part of the community||Strongly Disagree||73.91%||14.86%||1.75%||0.00%||0.75%|
|Neither Agree nor Disagree||0.00%||37.84%||56.14%||23.62%||1.50%|
|Q3. I have shared in the Facebook community the proposed activities of the course||Strongly Disagree||86.96%||51.35%||34.21%||36.22%||22.56%|
|Neither Agree nor Disagree||0.00%||17.57%||24.56%||21.26%||22.56%|
|Q4 (d). Participation in the Facebook group [Likes]||Strongly Disagree||73.91%||47.30%||32.46%||37.01%||21.05%|
|Neither Agree nor Disagree||4.35%||16.22%||16.67%||9.45%||4.51%|
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Borrás-Gené, O.; Martínez-Núñez, M.; Martín-Fernández, L. Enhancing Fun through Gamification to Improve Engagement in MOOC. Informatics 2019, 6, 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics6030028
Borrás-Gené O, Martínez-Núñez M, Martín-Fernández L. Enhancing Fun through Gamification to Improve Engagement in MOOC. Informatics. 2019; 6(3):28. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics6030028Chicago/Turabian Style
Borrás-Gené, Oriol, Margarita Martínez-Núñez, and Luis Martín-Fernández. 2019. "Enhancing Fun through Gamification to Improve Engagement in MOOC" Informatics 6, no. 3: 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics6030028