A Pilot Study of Improving Self-Regulation and Social Interaction with Peers: An “Exciting School”
2. Materials and Methods
2.4. Data Analysis
3.1. Pre-Post Intervention Differences in PSMAT Scoring in Neurotypical Children
3.2. Pre-Postintervention Differences in PSMAT Scoring in Children with Special Educational Needs
3.3. Parents’ Perception of Neurotypical Children of the Effectiveness of the “Exciting School” Program
3.4. Parents’ Perception of Children with Special Educational Needs of the Effectiveness of the “Exciting School” Program
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Second n (%)||Third n (%)||Fourth n (%)||Fifth n (%)||p Value|
|Neurotypical (n = 100)|
|Boys||13 (59.1%)||17 (41.5%)||11 (50%)||6 (40%)|
|Girls||9 (40.9 %)||24 (58.5%)||11 (50%)||9 (60%)|
|Special Educational Needs (n = 7)|
|Boys||0 (0%)||3 (100%)||1 (50%)||0 (0%)|
|Girls||0 (0%)||0 (0%)||1 (50%)||2 (100%)|
|Dyslexia||0 (0%)||2 (4.3%)||1 (4.2%)||0 (0%)|
|ADHD||0 (0%)||1 (2.1%)||0 (0%)||0 (0%)|
|ASD||0 (0%)||0 (0%)||1 (4.2%)||1 (3.8%)|
|SLD||0 (0%)||0 (0%)||0 (0%)||1 (3.8%)|
|Emotional Recognition, Comprehension, and Expression||To recognize one’s own simple emotions|
To recognize simple interpersonal emotions
To recognize the causes of emotions
To acquire and use vocabulary to
To recognize own and other complex emotions
To understand the causes of complex emotions
To understand the causes of emotional ambivalence situations
|SESSION 1: The Parcheesi of emotions.|
Homework: The diary of emotions and Body Scanner.
SESSION 2: In my neighbor’s shoes.
Homework: Little Sherlock: Investigating the emotions around me.
SESSION 3: Let’s play: Guess how I feel in my daily life.
Homework: How I feel, how I do?
|Emotional Self-regulation||To learn basic sensory strategies for self-regulation|
To learn complex strategies for self-regulation
To apply techniques to change the negative emotional state
|SESSION 4: Move and keep calm!|
Homework: my sensory world and my calm: The bottle of calm.
SESSION 5: The traffic light and Spaghetti techniques.
Homework: Practice spaghetti with the traffic light in my daily life. The diary of anger.
SESSION 6: The tale of the turtle.
Homework: The Turtle Bookmark.
SESSION 7: Collage of coping strategies.
Homework: What works for me?
|Emotional Autonomy and Social Skills||To promote basic social skills|
To demonstrate respect for others
To increase a positive attitude and personal self-efficacy
To enhance self-esteem
|SESSION 7: I Liked myself! Positive Self-Talk.|
Homework: Creating my healthy habits roulette!
SESSION 8: The invisible backpack: stones or bubbles?
Homework: Practice being nice. How can I help you?
SESSION 9: Use of messages “I feel …” Improving our communication.
Homework: Letter of Thanks.
|Life-skills and Well-Being||To promote occupational balance|
To learn skills of management of time
|SESSION 10: The time thief.|
Homework: Occupational balance in my life!
|Neurotypical (n = 98)||Special Educational Needs (n = 7)|
|Z||p-Value a||Median (IQR)|
|Skills for appropriately standing up for own opinions, needs, and rights with peers||5 (4–6)|
|Skills for joining new groups of peers, or welcoming a new child into the group||5 (4–6)|
|Child’s leadership skills with peers||4 (3–6)|
|Skills for coping with peers who frustrate or interfere with the group’s goals and activities||4 (3–6)|
|Skills for understanding the needs and interests of peers who differ from the group norm||4 (3–6)|
|Maturity of the child’s everyday modes of playing with peers||5 (4–6)|
|The overall maturity of the child’s social skills||5 (4–6)|
|PSMAT total score||32 (27–40)|
|Neurotypical (n = 37)||Special Educational Needs (n = 7)|
|n (%)||n (%)|
|Influence of Program in Daily Life|
|Yes||23 (62.2%)||7 (100%)|
|No||14 (37.8%)||0 (0%)|
|Explained strategies of self-regulation to parents|
|Yes||33 (89.2%)||6 (85.7%)|
|No||4 (10.8%)||1 (14.3%)|
|Use of strategies of self-regulation at home|
|Yes||23 (62.2 %)||2 (28.6%)|
|No||14 (37.8%)||5 (71.4%)|
|Understand better their emotions after the program|
|Yes||34 (91.9%)||4 (57.1%)|
|No||3 (8.1%)||3 (42.9%)|
|Better recognition of the emotions of others|
|Yes||32 (86.5%)||5 (71.4%)|
|No||5 (13.5%)||2 (28.6%)|
|Better emotional self-regulation|
|Yes||28 (75.7%)||3 (42.9%)|
|No||9 (24.3%)||4 (57.1%)|
|Parents think they need a program to learn self-regulation strategies|
|Yes||36 (97.3%)||6 (85.7%)|
|No||1 (2.7%)||1 (14.3%)|
|Usefulness of information provided through the school blog|
|Yes||33 (89.2%)||7 (100%)|
|No||4 (10.8%)||0 (0%)|
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Romero-Ayuso, D.; Espinosa-García, B.; Gómez-Marín, E.; Gómez-Jara, N.; Cuevas-Delgado, C.; Álvarez-Benítez, I.; Triviño-Juárez, J.-M. A Pilot Study of Improving Self-Regulation and Social Interaction with Peers: An “Exciting School”. Children 2022, 9, 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060829
Romero-Ayuso D, Espinosa-García B, Gómez-Marín E, Gómez-Jara N, Cuevas-Delgado C, Álvarez-Benítez I, Triviño-Juárez J-M. A Pilot Study of Improving Self-Regulation and Social Interaction with Peers: An “Exciting School”. Children. 2022; 9(6):829. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060829Chicago/Turabian Style
Romero-Ayuso, Dulce, Beatriz Espinosa-García, Elena Gómez-Marín, Nicolás Gómez-Jara, Claudia Cuevas-Delgado, Irene Álvarez-Benítez, and José-Matías Triviño-Juárez. 2022. "A Pilot Study of Improving Self-Regulation and Social Interaction with Peers: An “Exciting School”" Children 9, no. 6: 829. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060829