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Article

Correlates of Sub-Optimal Feeding Practices among under-5 Children amid Escalating Crises in Lebanon: A National Representative Cross-Sectional Study

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Faculty of Public Health, Section 1, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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PHENOL Research Group (Public HEalth Nutrition prOgram Lebanon), Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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Lebanese University Nutrition Surveillance Center (LUNSC), Lebanese Food Drugs and Chemical Administrations, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), P.O. Box 446, Jounieh 1200, Lebanon
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Faculty of Public Health, Section 2, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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INSPECT-LB (National Institute of Public Health, Clinical Epidemiology, and Toxicology), Beirut 00961, Lebanon
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Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, School of Engineering, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), P.O. Box 446, Jounieh 1200, Lebanon
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World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo 11371, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Tonia Vassilakou and Maria G. Grammatikopoulou
Children 2022, 9(6), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060817
Received: 22 April 2022 / Revised: 22 May 2022 / Accepted: 24 May 2022 / Published: 1 June 2022
Sub-optimal feeding practices among under-5 children are the major drivers of malnutrition. This study aims to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and complementary feeding practices among under 5 children amid the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the economic and the political crises in Lebanon. A nationally representative stratified random sample of mother–child dyads (n = 511) was collected from households using a stratified cluster sampling design. The survey inquired about infant’s feeding and complementary feeding practices using a valid questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of the mother and child were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to explore the determinants associated with under-5 children’s practices. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obese children was 0.5%, 8.4%, 6.7%, 16.8% and 8.9%, respectively. In total, among under-5 children, the prevalence of ever breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and bottle feeding at birth was 95.1%, 59.1% and 25.8%, respectively. Half the children in this study started solid foods between 4 and 6 months. Regression analysis showed that supporting breastfeeding at hospital (aOR = 8.20, 95% CI (3.03–22.17)) and husband’s support (aOR = 3.07, 95% CI (1.9–4.92)) were associated with increased breastfeeding odds. However, mother’s occupation (aOR = 0.18, 95% CI (0.55–0.58)) was inversely associated with breastfeeding practices. Male children (aOR = 2.119, 95% CI (1.37–3.27), mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI (0.35–0.95)), and bottle feeding at hospital (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI (0.32–0.77)) were more likely to induce early initiation of solid foods at 4 months of age. This study demonstrated non-negligible rates of malnutrition, low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and high rates of early introduction of formula feeding and solid foods among Lebanese under-5-children amid escalating crises. View Full-Text
Keywords: feeding practices; under-5 children; malnutrition; crises; Lebanon feeding practices; under-5 children; malnutrition; crises; Lebanon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoteit, M.; Ibrahim, C.; Saadeh, D.; Al-Jaafari, M.; Atwi, M.; Alasmar, S.; Najm, J.; Sacre, Y.; Hanna-Wakim, L.; Al-Jawaldeh, A. Correlates of Sub-Optimal Feeding Practices among under-5 Children amid Escalating Crises in Lebanon: A National Representative Cross-Sectional Study. Children 2022, 9, 817. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060817

AMA Style

Hoteit M, Ibrahim C, Saadeh D, Al-Jaafari M, Atwi M, Alasmar S, Najm J, Sacre Y, Hanna-Wakim L, Al-Jawaldeh A. Correlates of Sub-Optimal Feeding Practices among under-5 Children amid Escalating Crises in Lebanon: A National Representative Cross-Sectional Study. Children. 2022; 9(6):817. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060817

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoteit, Maha, Carla Ibrahim, Danielle Saadeh, Marwa Al-Jaafari, Marwa Atwi, Sabine Alasmar, Jessica Najm, Yonna Sacre, Lara Hanna-Wakim, and Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh. 2022. "Correlates of Sub-Optimal Feeding Practices among under-5 Children amid Escalating Crises in Lebanon: A National Representative Cross-Sectional Study" Children 9, no. 6: 817. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9060817

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