Next Article in Journal
Is a Parry Fracture—An Isolated Fracture of the Ulnar Shaft—Associated with the Probability of Abuse in Children between 2 and 16 Years Old?
Next Article in Special Issue
Introduction to the Special Issue on Ischemic Stroke in Children
Previous Article in Journal
Effectiveness and Safety of Intravenous Sedation with Propofol in Non-Operating Room Anesthesia (NORA) for Dental Treatment in Uncooperative Paediatric Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Multimodal Treatment of Pediatric Ruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Single-Center Study
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Pediatric Patient with Ischemic Stroke: Initial Approach and Early Management

Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Paediatric Neurology, University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Children 2021, 8(8), 649;
Submission received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 21 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ischemic Stroke in Children)


Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) in children is an acute neurologic emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of AIS in pediatric patients is considerably lower than in adults, the overall cumulative negative impact of the quality of life could be even higher in children. The age-related variable clinical presentation could result in a delay in diagnosis and could negatively influence the overall outcome. The early management should be based on early recognition, acute transfer to pediatric AIS centre, standardised approach (ABCDE), early neurologic examination together with neuroimaging (preferable Magnetic Resonance Imaging—MRI). The treatment is based on supportive therapy (normoxemia, normocapnia, normotension and normoglycemia) in combination with intravenous/intraarterial thrombolytic therapy and/or mechanical thrombectomy in selected cases. Pediatric stroke centres, together with the implementation of local stroke management protocols, could further improve the outcome of pediatric patients with AIS.

1. Introduction

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a stroke is defined as “rapidly developing clinical signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral function, with symptoms lasting 24 h or longer or resulting in death, with no apparent cause other than of vascular origin” [1]. However, an updated definition of stroke for the 21st century could be currently preferred and written as follows: “an acute onset neurological sign or symptom attributable to focal brain infarction or haemorrhage” [2]. A stroke is an acute neurologic emergency with the need of urgent diagnosis, central nervous system imaging and prompt treatment, ideally in the set time window. A stroke in pediatric patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality [3]. Acute Ischemic Stroke is among the top ten causes of death, with the greater risk in specific subpopulations (adolescents and infants, patients with sickle cell anaemia, black race and male gender) [4,5,6]. In comparison to adults, the incidence of acute stroke in pediatric patients is considerably lower. However, the proportion of patients with lasting neurologic deficit [7,8,9,10], the impact on quality of life and the health care system and overall cumulative care costs could be significantly higher in children [9,11,12]. This narrative review aims to primarily investigate AIS in pediatric patients.

2. Classification

When considering the aetiology of a stroke, there are two major subtypes of strokes: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Although the supportive therapy (neurointensive care) has the same groundings in both cases, primary treatments are entirely different (thrombolysis, thrombectomy, anticoagulation and antiplatelets in ischemic aetiology in contrast to coagulation management and surgical intervention in haemorrhagic stroke). Ischemic strokes can be caused by arterial or venous pathology. Venous-based strokes are caused by cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) or by cortical vein thrombosis [13].
The age-related classification of AIS divides this clinical syndrome into two categories: perinatal stroke (sometimes referred to as neonatal) and childhood stroke [13]. Perinatal stroke is classified as a stroke during the perinatal period from 20 weeks (sometimes 28 weeks) of gestation until the end of the newborn period (28th postnatal day). Childhood stroke encompasses the age group from 28 days up to 18 years of age [14]. Silent stroke is defined only for clinical purposes as abnormal central nervous system or vascular system of head and neck abnormality without neurologic presentation and neurologic deficit; however, according to the definition—acute neurological symptoms [2]—this could not be defined as a stroke per se [13]. Nevertheless, the abnormalities found on radiology imaging can be associated with a slow cognitive impairment in adults [4,13]. Recurrent strokes are defined as a repeated stroke insult over time in the same patient. The incidence of recurrent stroke could reach up to 12% in the first year after the initial stroke insult [15], with the highest risk in patients with arteriopathy or cardiac diseases. The recurrence risk could reach up to 27% [16].

3. Epidemiology

The reported incidence of strokes in pediatric patients is between 1.3–13/100,000/year and up to 25–40/100,000/births in neonates [15,17,18,19] with an increasing trend over the past decades that is possibly due to the improvement in stroke detection and availability of imaging methods [20]. The overall incidence of stroke in childhood is age-related, with the peak in the perinatal period (up to 25% reported cases) [6,21,22] and progressively age-related decrease. In childhood strokes (excluding the perinatal period), the highest published incidence is below five years [23,24,25,26,27,28], with a median age of 2.3 years [29]. In the perinatal period, the dominant type of stroke is AIS with arterial ischemic aetiology (up to 80%) [13]. In childhood, the ratio between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke aetiology is equal [30,31], with a slight AIS predominance (58.6% vs. 38.6% or 64% vs. 36%) [30,32].

4. Risk Factors

Pathogenesis of pediatric AIS seems to be different from adults in which atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and chronic inflammatory conditions are well recognised risk factors [13]. In children AIS, the spectra of risk factors are even more comprehensive. However, for specific age groups, some factors seem to be more important than the others, according to Jeong et al. [33] (Table 1). In the perinatal period, pathogenesis is probably multifactorial (involving both maternal, neonatal and birth-related risk factors). The reported and presumed risk factors of perinatal stroke are infertility, primiparity, gestational hypertension, oligohydramnion, pre-eclampsia, chorioamnionitis, maternal fever, premature rupture of membranes, prolonged and instrumental/surgical delivery, birth asphyxia, trauma, early sepsis, cardiac disease, dehydration, hypercoagulable state (Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A mutation; Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation—MTHFR; Protein C or S deficiency; increased levels of factor VIII, IX, XI, fibrinogen, lipoprotein (a), hyperhomocysteinemia and antiphospholipid syndrome) and vasculopathies (predominantly artheriopathies) [13,14,16,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41]. The identified risk factors for childhood AIS are artheriopaties, chronic systemic disease with inflammation, sickle cell anaemia, cardiac diseases and hypercoagulable states (thrombophilia), metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, dehydration and cancer [4]. Cardiac aetiology has been identified as one of the most prevalent risk factors in about 20–30% of cases [4,13,40,42], where the risk of AIS in children with congenital heart disease is 19-fold increased. Artheriopathies (intra- and extracranial) such as Moyamoya, craniocervical arterial dissection (CCAD), vasculitis and focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood (FCA) can represent risk factors up to 29% of reported cases [25]. The impact of artheriopaties could be highlighted by the 40–80% incidence of arterial abnormalities found on vascular imaging in children with AIS [26,43]. Thrombophilia was identified in 20–50% of children with AIS (considerably higher incidence compared to adult AIS patients) [37,44]. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a significant risk factor. It could be the most important regionally-based AIS risk in areas with a higher prevalence of SCD (e.g., in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean), with the peak incidence in children between 2 and 5 years [45,46]. A higher incidence of AIS is reported in the Black race and male gender [31,47]. Although in 50–80% of patients with AIS, at least one risk factor has been identified [4,48]. In 25% no risk factor could be identified and AIS has been classified as idiopathic [22,49]. Recently, during the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there were several reported case scenarios of AIS occurring in children who either suffered acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 or who presented with AIS and other symptoms as part of the paediatric multisystem inflammatory response temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children—MIS-C) [50,51]. There were concerns about the possible higher incidence of AIS in children, which might be explained by uncontrolled inflammatory response and cytokine storm following infection with SARS-CoV-2 and decreased mobility during the quarantine as a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. However, the data of children stroke cases positive for SARS-CoV-2 are insufficient [52].

5. Presentation and Diagnosis

Immediate AIS diagnosis in combination with imaging is the mainstay of the initial management. However, due to age-related differences in clinical presentation and even non-specific stroke symptoms in newborns, infants, toddlers and small children, the median time for AIS diagnosis in children is significantly longer compared to the adult population [53,54]. The reported interval from initial symptoms to hospital admission is highly variable, the delay to a definitive diagnosis of AIS reaches the median time between 15 and 24 h [13] and the in-hospital (admission to diagnosis) delay represents most of it [53]. When considering the perinatal stroke, the new-onset seizures, which typically include focal motoric unilateral seizures, are the most prevalent symptoms that occur in up to 94% of newborns (compared to 17–34% in childhood stroke) [13,29,55]. Non-specific cardiorespiratory syndromes are far more prevalent in newborns, whereas older children present with more typical symptoms: hemiparesis, hemifacial weakness, speech and vision abnormalities and altered consciousness [13]. Screening stroke pathways and stroke protocols implemented into emergency care could improve and speed up the diagnosis process. Several non-specific stroke-like conditions such as the new onset of a migraine, severe headache, Bell palsy and seizures with Todd paresis, brain tumour, central nervous infection, intoxication, traumatic brain injury, metabolic and/or psychiatric disease could mimic AIS (Table 2) [13]. The new onset of the focal deficit is more common in stroke patients than patients with stroke mimic presentation [13]. However, patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms should be transferred ideally to the specific stroke centre (e.g., paediatric stroke centre) with the possibility of 24/7 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a paediatric neurologist on-site available to examine the patient initially in the emergency department before further advances. For the initial neurologic examination of a child with possible AIS, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was validated for children between 2 and 17 years of age [56,57,58].

6. Initial Approach

Children with suspected AIS should be acutely transferred to the specialised pediatric stroke centres, where the stroke protocol/pathway should be initiated before the patient arrives at the emergency department. The mainstay of the good clinical practice could be considered as a standardised ABCDE approach implementation (according to the European Resuscitation Council—ERC; or European Paediatric Advanced Life Support—EPALS; Table 3) together with an acute neurologic examination (pediatric neurologist), intravenous access obtaining together with laboratory tests (Figure 1) and acute imaging method scheduling with the following primary aim: “Time is brain” (proceed as quickly as possible due to the possible time window for intravenous thrombolytic therapy and mechanical thrombectomy). The neurointensive care aimed for minimising the potential secondary damage by optimising the perfusion, oxygen delivery and even suppressing the oxygen radical formation (normal blood pressure for age, normal oxygen saturation, normocapnia, seizures treatment, normoglycemia and normothermia) should start immediately upon patient admission.

7. Imaging

In contrast to adult care where computed tomography (CT) remains the first imaging method, the MRI is considered a gold standard for children [4]. The initial CT scan in children could be falsely negative [56] (may miss AIS diagnosis in up to 50% of patient cases) [30] and can miss hyperacute small lesions or lesions located in the posterior fossa and brainstem [4]. Due to the risk of arteriopathy and dissection, the recommended approach is to perform an acute MRI of the head and neck. The optimal requirements for MRI stroke protocol are the following: diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI); magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); axial T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR); susceptibility-weighted imaging or gradient echo (SWI or GRE) with approximately 25 min of MRI imaging duration or it could be limited to only DWI + SWI/GRE protocol to speed up the process [56]. In clinical practice, the significant delay in diagnosis could be affected by MRI availability and, in the case of infants, by the availability of an anaesthetist to provide general anaesthesia for imaging. In all children with AIS, echocardiography should be performed to rule out the possible cardio-embolic aetiology; however, this must not delay specific AIS therapy initiation (thrombolysis or thrombectomy).

8. Specific AIS Therapy

Based on adult data, intravenous, intraarterial thrombolysis (tissue plasminogen activator = tPA—Alteplase) and mechanical/endovascular thrombectomy could be considered for pediatric patients under 18 years with AIS [59]. The treatment efficacy is directly proportional to the delay (minimum delay = better outcome) and should be initiated in predefined time windows [60,61]. For intravenous tPA 4.5 h and for intra-arterial and mechanical thrombectomy 6 h from the onset of AIS symptomatology with the possible window prolongation up to 24 h (for mechanical thrombectomy) in selected cases (basilar artery and middle cerebral artery thrombosis) [62,63]. Due to insufficient data considering the ideal tPA dosing in pediatric patients (TIPS—Thrombolysis in Pediatric Stroke trial was prematurely stopped due to enrollment issues), the adult dosing regimen should be used (0.9 mg/kg, 10% of the total dose administered as i.v. bolus over 1 min and the remainder infused over 60 min) [64]. However, the standard implementation in these treatment regimens to pediatric patients should be still based on a case-by-case approach because 30–50% of patients with AIS could recover without neurologic deficits and without treatment [60,65] and the risk of intervention could possibly be higher than the benefit [13], in particular, in children with low risk predicted by the initial Pediatric NIH Stroke Scale [66,67]. According to recently published guidelines for stroke management in children and neonates (Ferriero et al.), the intervention should be considered in older children with NIH Stroke Scale ≥ 6 and proven large artery occlusion after neurologist and endovascular surgeon consultation [13]. Although the overall risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage after intravenous tPA is low (around 2.6%) [68] and even lower in older children and young adults [69], the risk of intracranial haemorrhage is approximately 3.48 higher after tPA compared to no treatment with no effect on in-hospital mortality according to the recently published meta-analysis by Pacheco et al. [68]. Mechanical endovascular thrombectomy should be considered when available in children with basilar and middle cerebral artery occlusion due to thrombus/embolus formation. The method has highly reported in recanalisation rates, low procedure associated risks (when performed by trained endovascular surgeon/radiologist) and excellent clinical outcome (up to 87.6% by modified Rankin scale) [70]. Surgical hemicraniectomy should be considered as a potentially life-saving procedure in pediatric patients with large supratentorial ischemic areas and large cerebellar infarction (e.g., middle cerebral artery occlusion), where specific therapy (thrombolysis and thrombectomy) was not indicated or failed [13]. It can be performed as early prophylactic (in the first 24 h) or in 72 h (based on serial imaging) [13]. The overall reported survival rate after decompressive craniectomy series for pediatric AIS reached 95%, with 59% of patients with severe neurologic deficits [13]. Specific treatment is required in patients with AIS based on SCD aetiology, where exchange transfusion is urgent to improve the cerebral blood flow [71] and to reach haemoglobin levels up to 10 g/dL and lower the haemoglobin levels S ≤ 15% [13].

9. Further Treatment and Recurrence Prevention

Antithrombotic therapy (ATT) should be initiated in children with AIS as primary and secondary prevention. Aspirin or low molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended for initial treatment [72]. ATT in children with AIS appears to be safe in the initial treatment [73,74] and significantly reduces AIS recurrence risk [73,75]. In children with AIS based on cardiac aetiology, artheriopathy, extracranial dissection and prothrombotic disorder (e.g., thrombophilia), LMWH or even warfarin should be preferred for 3–6 months after stroke (even longer in selected cases based on haematologist recommendation) [13,72]. Aspirin (3–5 mg/kg/day) is recommended for prevention in all other AIS cases (dominantly in idiopathic AIS) [13]. Based on published data, ATT has been administered in the majority of childhood AIS (60%) but only in the minority of perinatal AIS (13%), probably due to lower risks of recurrence in perinatal AIS [30]. The risk associated with anticoagulation therapy (4% risk of symptomatic and 7% of asymptomatic intracranial haemorrhage) [73] should be compared with the risk of recurrence without ATT (1.5–2.0 risk) [29] in the following two years [76]. ATT (heparin) is contraindicated in the acute phase in AIS with hemorrhagic diathesis, bleeding disorders and even with the high stroke volume infarction with the highest risk for hemorrhagic transformation (e.g., complete middle cerebral artery occlusion) [56,77]. When considering the risk of potential administration of ATT, the ATT should be individualised and based on the consultation with a paediatric haematologist.
Further neurointensive care consists in primarily supportive therapy to maintain normoxemia, normocapnia, normotension (50–95th percentile age/height), normothermia, normoglycemia, euvolemia, aggressive seizure control (even continuous EEG implementation if indicated) and early rehabilitation [15,56,72,78]. In patients with intracranial hypertension and those possessing a risk of herniation, osmotic therapy with mannitol and/or hypertonic saline and decompressive craniectomy should be considered [13,78,79,80]. The benefit of intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with AIS is currently controversial, with inconsistent results [80,81].

10. Outcome

Reported pediatric AIS long-term outcomes are variable with significant (moderate to severe) neurologic deficit diagnosed in 31–51%, motor deficits between 50–62% and normal outcome (without deficit) in 30% patients [29,82,83,84,85]. The reported childhood AIS-related mortality is between 4 and 16% and has significantly decreased over time [29,30,86,87]. The risk of post-stroke epilepsy is around 25%, which is directly proportional to the volume of cortical ischemia [85,88]. The negative neurologic prognosis is strongly associated with initial NIH Stroke Scale [66,67], infarction volume [89] and imaging abnormalities (e.g., arteriopathies) [3,37,89].

11. Conclusions

Although new AIS risk factors, such as COVID-19 has been identified and the AIS incidence over the past decades is rising the overall AIS-related mortality is progressively decreasing The better access relative to imaging methods (dominantly MRI), pediatric stroke protocols implementation, the establishment of pediatric stroke centres, together with AIS specific therapy for high-risk patients and guidelines for pediatric stroke diagnosis and management could be a possible explanation. The mainstay of positive outcomes remains to be early AIS recognition, standardised approaches and early therapy (case-by-case approach) in high-risk patients.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis: J.K., E.K., T.M., M.K. (Milan Kratochvíl), T.K., T.S., M.K. (Martina Kosinová), O.H., H.O., P.J., P.Š.; writing—original draft preparation: J.K., E.K., T.M., M.K. (Milan Kratochvíl), T.K., T.S., M.K. (Martina Kosinová), O.H., H.O., P.J. and P.Š.; writing—review and editing: P.Š.; supervision: J.K.; project administration: J.K., M.K. (Martina Kosinová); funding acquisition: P.Š. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was supported by the Specific University Research provided by MŠMT (MUNI/A/1153/2020, MUNI/A/1178/2020) and supported by MH CZ—DRO (FNBr, 65269705).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript or in the decision to publish the results.


  1. WHO. MONICA Project Principal Investigators. The World Health Organization Monica Project (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease): A major international collaboration. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1988, 41, 105–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Sacco, R.L.; Kasner, S.E.; Broderick, J.P.; Caplan, L.R.; Connors, J.; Culebras, A.; Elkind, M.S.; George, M.G.; Hamdan, A.D.; Higashida, R.T.; et al. An Updated Definition of Stroke for the 21st Century. Stroke 2013, 44, 2064–2089. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  3. Goldenberg, N.A.; Bernard, T.J.; Fullerton, H.J.; Gordon, A.; de Veber, G. Antithrombotic treatments, outcomes, and prognostic factors in acute childhood onset arterial ischaemic stroke: A multicentre, observational, cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2009, 8, 1120–1127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Andrade, A.; Yau, I.; Moharir, M. Current Concepts in Pediatric Stroke. Indian J. Pediatr. 2014, 82, 179–188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Kissela, B.M.; Khoury, J.C.; Alwell, K.; Moomaw, C.J.; Woo, D.; Adeoye, O.; Flaherty, M.L.; Khatri, P.; Ferioli, S.; De Los Rios La Rosa, F.; et al. Age at stroke: Temporal trends in stroke in-cidence in a large, biracial population. Neurology 2012, 79, 1781–1787. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  6. Golomb, M.R.; Fullerton, H.J.; Nowak-Gottl, U.; Deveber, G. Male predominance in childhood ischemic stroke: Findings from the international pediatric stroke study. Stroke 2009, 40, 52–57. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  7. Grysiewicz, R.A.; Thomas, K.; Pandey, D. Epidemiology of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke: Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality, and Risk Factors. Neurol. Clin. 2008, 26, 871–895. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Statler, K.D.; Dong, L.; Nielsen, D.M.; Bratton, S.L. Pediatric stroke: Clinical characteristics, acute care utilization patterns, and mortality. Child’s Nerv. Syst. 2010, 27, 565–573. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Gardner, M.A.; Hills, N.K.; Sidney, S.; Johnston, S.C.; Fullerton, H.J. The 5-year direct medical cost of neonatal and child-hood stroke in a population-based cohort. Neurology 2010, 74, 372–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  10. Lo, W.; Zamel, K.; Ponnappa, K.; Allen, A.; Chisolm, D.; Tang, M.; Kerlin, B.; Yeates, K. The Cost of Pediatric Stroke Care and Rehabilitation. Stroke 2008, 39, 161–165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  11. Perkins, E.; Stephens, J.; Xiang, H.; Lo, W. The Cost of Pediatric Stroke Acute Care in the United States. Stroke 2009, 40, 2820–2827. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  12. Hamilton, W.; Huang, H.; Seiber, E.; Lo, W. Cost and Outcome in Pediatric Ischemic Stroke. J. Child Neurol. 2015, 30, 1483–1488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Ferriero, D.M.; Fullerton, H.; Bernard, T.J.; Billinghurst, L.; Daniels, S.R.; DeBaun, M.R.; DeVeber, G.; Ichord, R.N.; Jordan, L.C.; Massicotte, P.; et al. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2019, 50, e51–e96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  14. Nelson, K.B.; Lynch, J.K. Stroke in newborn infants. Lancet Neurol. 2004, 3, 150–158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  15. Rivkin, M.J.; Bernard, T.J.; Dowling, M.M.; Amlie-Lefond, C. Guidelines for Urgent Management of Stroke in Children. Pediatr. Neurol. 2016, 56, 8–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  16. Rodan, L.; McCrindle, B.W.; Manlhiot, C.; MacGregor, D.L.; Askalan, R.; Moharir, M.; de Veber, G. Stroke recurrence in chil-dren with congenital heart disease. Ann. Neurol. 2012, 72, 103–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Giroud, M.; Lemesle, M.; Madinier, G.; Manceau, E.; Osseby, G.V.; Dumas, R. Stroke in children under 16 years of age. Clinical and etiological difference with adults. Acta Neurol. Scand. 2009, 96, 401–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Tsze, D.; Valente, J.H. Pediatric Stroke: A Review. Emerg. Med. Int. 2011, 2011, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  19. Mallick, A.A.; O’Callaghan, F.J. The epidemiology of childhood stroke. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 2010, 14, 197–205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Gandhi, S.K.; McKinney, J.S.; Sedjro, J.E.; Cosgrove, N.M.; Cabrera, J.; Kostis, J.B. Temporal trends in incidence and long-term case fatality of stroke among children from 1994 to 2007. Neurology 2012, 78, 1923–1929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Kirton, A.; DeVeber, G. Advances in Perinatal Ischemic Stroke. Pediatr. Neurol. 2009, 40, 205–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. de Veber, G.; Roach, E.S.; Riela, A.R.; Wiznitzer, M. Stroke in children: Recognition, treatment, and future directions. Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. 2000, 7, 309–317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Steinlin, M.; Pfister, I.; Pavlovic, J.; Everts, R.; Boltshauser, E.; Mori, A.C.; Mercati, D.G.; Hänggeli, C.-A.; Keller, E.; Luetschg, J.; et al. The First Three Years of the Swiss Neuropaediatric Stroke Registry (SNPSR): A Population-Based Study of Incidence, Symptoms and Risk Factors. Neuropediatrics 2005, 36, 90–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Christerson, S.; Strömberg, B. Childhood stroke in Sweden I: Incidence, symptoms, risk factors and short-term outcome. Acta Paediatr. 2010, 99, 1641–1649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Mallick, A.; Ganesan, V.; Kirkham, F.; Fallon, P.; Hedderly, T.; McShane, T.; Parker, A.P.; Wassmer, E.; Wraige, E.; Amin, S.; et al. Childhood arterial ischaemic stroke incidence, presenting features, and risk factors: A prospective population-based study. Lancet Neurol. 2014, 13, 35–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Wintermark, M.; Hills, N.K.; DeVeber, G.A.; Barkovich, A.J.; Elkind, M.S.; Sear, K.; Zhu, G.; Leiva-Salinas, C.; Hou, Q.; Dowling, M.M.; et al. Arteriopathy diagnosis in childhood arterial ischemic stroke: Results of the vascular effects of infection in pediatric stroke study. Stroke 2014, 45, 3597–4605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  27. Yock-Corrales, A.; Mackay, M.T.; Mosley, I.; Maixner, W.; Babl, F.E. Acute Childhood Arterial Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in the Emergency Department. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2011, 58, 156–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Simma, B.; Martin, G.; Müller, T.; Huemer, M. Risk Factors for Pediatric Stroke: Consequences for Therapy and Quality of Life. Pediatr. Neurol. 2007, 37, 121–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Deveber, G.A.; Kirton, A.; Booth, F.A.; Yager, J.Y.; Wirrell, E.C.; Wood, E.; Shevell, M.; Surmava, A.-M.; McCusker, P.; Massicotte, M.P.; et al. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children: The Canadian Pediatric Ischemic Stroke Registry. Pediatr. Neurol. 2017, 69, 58–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Lehman, L.L.; Khoury, J.C.; Taylor, J.M.; Yeramaneni, S.; Sucharew, H.; Alwell, K.; Moomaw, C.J.; Peariso, K.; Flaherty, M.; Khatri, P.; et al. Pediatric Stroke Rates Over 17 Years: Report From a Population-Based Study. J. Child Neurol. 2018, 33, 463–467. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Fullerton, H.; Wu, Y.W.; Zhao, S.; Johnston, S.C. Risk of stroke in children: Ethnic and gender disparities. Neurology 2003, 61, 189–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. DeLaroche, A.M.; Sivaswamy, L.; Farooqi, A.; Kannikeswaran, N. Pediatric Stroke Clinical Pathway Improves the Time to Diagnosis in an Emergency Department. Pediatr. Neurol. 2016, 65, 39–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Jeong, G.; Lim, B.C.; Chae, J.-H. Pediatric Stroke. J. Korean Neurosurg. Soc. 2015, 57, 396–400. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  34. Günther, G.; Junker, R.; Sträter, R.; Schobess, R.; Kurnik, K.; Heller, C.; Kosch, A.; Nowak-Göttl, U. Symptomatic ischemic stroke in full-term neonates: Role of acquired and genetic prothrombotic risk factors. Stroke 2000, 31, 2437–2441. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  35. Lee, J.; Croen, L.A.; Backstrand, K.H.; Yoshida, C.K.; Henning, L.H.; Lindan, C.; Ferriero, D.M.; Fullerton, H.J.; Barkovich, A.J.; Wu, Y.W. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with perinatal arterial stroke in the infant. JAMA 2005, 293, 723–729. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Curtis, C.; Mineyko, A.; Massicotte, P.; Leaker, M.; Jiang, X.Y.; Floer, A.; Kirton, A. Thrombophilia risk is not increased in children after perinatal stroke. Blood 2017, 129, 2793–2800. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Felling, R.J.; Sun, L.R.; Maxwell, E.C.; Goldenberg, N.; Bernard, T. Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke: Epidemiology, risk factors, and management. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2017, 67, 23–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Simchen, M.; Goldstein, G.; Lubetsky, A.; Strauss, T.; Schiff, E.; Kenet, G. Factor V Leiden and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Either Mothers or Infants Increase the Risk for Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke. Stroke 2009, 40, 65–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  39. Curry, C.J.; Bhullar, S.; Holmes, J.; Delozier, C.D.; Roeder, E.R.; Hutchison, H.T. Risk Factors for Perinatal Arterial Stroke: A Study of 60 Mother-Child Pairs. Pediatr. Neurol. 2007, 37, 99–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Sinclair, A.J.; Fox, C.; Ichord, R.N.; Almond, C.S.; Bernard, T.J.; Beslow, L.A.; Chan, A.K.C.; Cheung, M.; Deveber, G.; Dowling, M.M.; et al. Stroke in Children With Cardiac Disease: Report From the International Pediatric Stroke Study Group Symposium. Pediatr. Neurol. 2015, 52, 5–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  41. Ganesan, V.; Prengler, M.; McShane, M.A.; Wade, A.M.; Kirkham, F. Investigation of risk factors in children with arterial ischemic stroke. Ann. Neurol. 2002, 53, 167–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Fox, C.K.; Sidney, S.; Fullerton, H. Community-based case-control study of childhood stroke risk associated with congenital heart disease. Stroke 2015, 46, 336–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  43. Haywood, S.; Liesner, R.; Pindora, S.; Ganesan, V. Thrombophilia and first arterial ischaemic stroke: A systematic review. Arch. Dis. Child. 2005, 90, 402–405. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  44. De Baun, M.R.; Armstrong, F.D.; McKinstry, R.C.; Ware, R.E.; Vichinsky, E.; Kirkham, F.J. Silent cerebral infarcts: A review on a prevalent and progressive cause of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia. Blood 2012, 119, 4587–4596. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. DeBaun, M.R. Secondary Prevention of Overt Strokes in Sickle Cell Disease: Therapeutic Strategies and Efficacy. Hematology 2011, 2011, 427–433. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  46. Grunt, S.; Mazenauer, L.; Buerki, S.E.; Boltshauser, E.; Mori, A.C.; Datta, A.N.; Fluss, J.; Mercati, D.; Keller, E.; Maier, O.; et al. Incidence and Outcomes of Symptomatic Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke. Pediatrics 2015, 135, e1220–e1228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  47. Bernard, T.J.; Manco-Johnson, M.J.; Lo, W.; Mackay, M.; Ganesan, V.; DeVeber, G.; Goldenberg, N.A.; Armstrong-Wells, J.; Dowling, M.M.; Roach, E.S.; et al. Towards a Consensus-Based Classification of Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke. Stroke 2012, 43, 371–377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  48. Mackay, M.T.; Wiznitzer, M.; Benedict, S.L.; Lee, K.J.; DeVeber, G.A.; Ganesan, V. Arterial ischemic stroke risk factors: The international pediatric stroke study. Ann. Neurol. 2011, 69, 130–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Rafay, M.F.; Pontigon, A.-M.; Chiang, J.; Adams, M.; Jarvis, D.A.; Silver, F.; MacGregor, D.; DeVeber, G.A. Delay to Diagnosis in Acute Pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke. Stroke 2009, 40, 58–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  50. Lam, K.; Lee, J.H.; Cheng, P.; Ajani, Z.; Salem, M.M.; Sangha, N. Pediatric stroke associated with a sedentary lifestyle during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic: A case report on a 17-year-old. Neurol. Sci. 2021, 42, 21–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Tiwari, L.; Shekhar, S.; Bansal, A.; Kumar, S. COVID-19 associated arterial ischaemic stroke and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A case report. Lancet Child Adolesc. Health 2021, 5, 88–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Beslow, L.A.; Msc, A.B.L.; Fox, C.K.; Kossorotoff, M.; Zambrano, Y.C.Z.; Hernández-Chávez, M.; Hassanein, S.M.A.; Byrne, S.; Lim, M.; Maduaka, N.; et al. Pediatric Ischemic Stroke: An Infrequent Complication of SARS-CoV-2. Ann. Neurol. 2020, 89, 657–665. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Mackay, M.T.; Lee, M.; Churilov, L.; Yock-Corrales, A.; Donnan, G.; Monagle, P.; Babl, F. Pediatric brain attacks: Differentiating between stroke and mimics in the emergency room. International Stroke Conference oral abstract 37. Stroke 2014, 45, A37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Billinghurst, L.L.; Beslow, L.A.; Abend, N.S.; Uohara, M.; Jastrzab, L.; Licht, D.J.; Ichord, R.N. Incidence and predictors of epilepsy after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Neurology 2017, 88, 630–637. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  55. Elbers, J.; Wainwright, M.S.; Amlie-Lefond, C. The Pediatric Stroke Code: Early Management of the Child with Stroke. J. Pediatr. 2015, 167, 19–24.e4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. Ichord, R.N.; Bastian, R.; Abraham, L.; Askalan, R.; Benedict, S.; Bernard, T.J.; Beslow, L.; de Veber, G.; Dowling, M.; Friedman, N.; et al. Interrater reliability of the Pediatric Na-tional Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (PedNIHSS) in a multicenter study. Stroke 2011, 42, 613–617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  57. Ichord, R.; Smith, S.E.; Garg, B.P.; Garcia-Espana, F.J.; Licht, D.J.; O’Tool, E.; Clancy, R. Pediatric adaptation of the NIH stroke scale predicts outcome after arterial ischemic stroke in children. Stroke 2005, 36, 480–481. [Google Scholar]
  58. Powers, W.J.; Derdeyn, C.; Biller, J.; Coffey, C.S.; Hoh, B.L.; Jauch, E.C.; Johnston, K.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Khalessi, A.A.; Kidwell, C.S.; et al. 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American. Stroke 2015, 46, 3020–3035. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  59. Goyal, M.; Menon, B.K.; van Zwam, W.H.; Dippel, D.W.J.; Mitchell, P.J.; Demchuk, A.M.; Dávalos, A.; Majoie, C.B.L.M.; van der Lugt, A.; de Miquel, M.; et al. Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: A meta-analysis of individual patient data from five randomised trials. Lancet 2016, 387, 1723–1731. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Albers, G.W.; Marks, M.P.; Kemp, S.; Christensen, S.; Tsai, J.P.; Ortega-Gutierrez, S.; McTaggart, R.A.; Torbey, M.T.; Kim-Tenser, M.; Leslie-Mazwi, T.; et al. Thrombectomy for Stroke at 6 to 16 Hours with Selection by Perfusion Imaging. N. Engl. J. Med. 2018, 378, 708–718. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Nogueira, R.G.; Jadhav, A.P.; Haussen, D.C.; Bonafe, A.; Budzik, R.F.; Bhuva, P.; Yavagal, D.R.; Ribo, M.; Cognard, C.; Hanel, R.A.; et al. Thrombectomy 6 to 24 Hours after Stroke with a Mismatch between Deficit and Infarct. N. Engl. J. Med. 2018, 378, 11–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Rivkin, M.J.; DeVeber, G.; Ichord, R.N.; Kirton, A.; Chan, A.K.C.; Hovinga, C.A.; Gill, J.C.; Szabo, A.; Hill, M.; Scholz, K.; et al. Thrombolysis in Pediatric Stroke Study. Stroke 2015, 46, 880–885. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Simonetti, B.G.; Cavelti, A.; Arnold, M.; Bigi, S.; Regényi, M.; Mattle, H.P.; Gralla, J.; Fluss, J.V.; Weber, P.; Hackenberg, A.; et al. Long-term outcome after arterial ischemic stroke in children and young adults. Neurology 2015, 84, 1941–1947. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Andrade, A.; Bigi, S.; Laughlin, S.; Parthasarathy, S.; Sinclair, A.; Dirks, P.; Pontigon, A.M.; Moharir, M.; Askalan, R.; MacGregor, D.; et al. Association Between Prolonged Seizures and Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction in Children With Acute Ischemic Stroke. Pediatr. Neurol. 2016, 64, 44–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. Beslow, L.A.; Kasner, S.E.; Smith, S.E.; Mullen, M.T.; Kirschen, M.P.; Bastian, R.A.; Dowling, M.M.; Lo, W.; Jordan, L.C.; Bernard, T.J.; et al. Concurrent Validity and Reliability of Retrospective Scoring of the Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Stroke 2012, 43, 341–345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  66. Hacke, W.; Kaste, M.; Bluhmki, E.; Brozman, M.; Davalos, A.; Guidetti, D.; Larrue, V.; Lees, K.R.; Medeghri, Z.; Machnig, T.; et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008, 359, 1317–1329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  67. Putaala, J.; Metso, T.M.; Metso, A.J.; Mäkelä, E.; Haapaniemi, E.; Salonen, O.; Kaste, M.; Tatlisumak, T. Thrombolysis in young adults with is-chemic stroke. Stroke 2009, 40, 2085–2091. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  68. Pacheco, J.T.; Siepmann, T.; Barlinn, J.; Winzer, S.; Penzlin, A.I.; Puetz, V.; von der Hagen, M.; Barlinn, K. Safety and efficacy of recanalization therapy in pediatric stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 2018, 22, 1035–1041. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Satti, S.; Chen, J.; Sivapatham, T.; Jayaraman, M.; Orbach, D. Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: Review of the literature. J. NeuroInterv. Surg. 2016, 9, 732–737. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Roach, E.S.; Golomb, M.; Adams, R.; Biller, J.; Daniels, S.; DeVeber, G.; Ferriero, D.; Jones, B.V.; Kirkham, F.; Scott, R.M.; et al. Management of Stroke in Infants and Children: A scientific statement from a Special Writing Group of the American Heart Association. Stroke 2008, 39, 2644–2691. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  71. Schechter, T.; Kirton, A.; Laughlin, S.; Pontigon, A.-M.; Finkelstein, Y.; MacGregor, D.; Chan, A.K.C.; DeVeber, G.; Brandão, L.R. Safety of anticoagulants in children with arterial ischemic stroke. Blood 2012, 119, 949–956. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  72. Sträter, R.; Kurnik, K.; Heller, C.; Schobess, R.; Luigs, P.; Nowak-Göttl, U. Aspirin versus low-dose low-molecular-weight heparin: Antithrombotic therapy in pediatric ischemic stroke patients: A prospective follow-up study. Stroke 2001, 32, 2554–2558. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  73. Fullerton, H.J.; Wu, Y.W.; Sidney, S.; Johnston, S.C. Risk of Recurrent Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke in a Population-Based Cohort: The Importance of Cerebrovascular Imaging. Pediatrics 2007, 119, 495–501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. Fullerton, H.J.; Wintermark, M.; Hills, N.K.; Dowling, M.M.; Tan, M.; Rafay, M.F.; Elkind, M.S.V.; Barkovich, A.J.; DeVeber, G.A.; Plumb, P.A.; et al. Risk of Recurrent Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Childhood: A prospective international study. Stroke 2016, 47, 53–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  75. Beslow, L.A.; Smith, S.E.; Vossough, A.; Licht, D.J.; Kasner, S.E.; Favilla, C.; Halperin, A.R.; Gordon, D.M.; Jones, C.I.; Cucchiara, A.J.; et al. Hemorrhagic Transformation of Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke. Stroke 2011, 42, 941–946. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  76. Simma, B.; Höliner, I.; Luetschg, J. Therapy in pediatric stroke. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 2012, 172, 867–875. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Simma, B.; Tscharre, A.; Hejazi, N.; Krasznai, L.; Fae, P. Neurologic outcome after decompressive craniectomy in children. Intensiv. Care Med. 2002, 28, 1000. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. Smith, S.E.; Kirkham, F.J.; DeVeber, G.; Millman, G.; Dirks, P.B.; Wirrell, E.; Telfeian, A.E.; Sykes, K.; Barlow, K.; Ichord, R. Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in children. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 2010, 53, 29–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Klucka, J.; Stourac, P.; Stoudek, R.; Toukalkova, M.; Harazim, H.; Kosinova, M.; Stouracova, A.; Mrlian, A.; Suk, P.; Malaska, J. Ischemic stroke in paediatrics—Narrative review of the literature and two cases. Biomed. Pap. 2017, 161, 24–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  80. Cnossen, M.H.; Aarsen, F.K.; Akker, S.L.V.D.; Danen, R.; Appel, I.M.; Steyerberg, E.; E Catsman-Berrevoets, C. Paediatric arterial ischaemic stroke: Functional outcome and risk factors. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 2010, 52, 394–399. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Pavlovic, J.; Kaufmann, F.; Boltshauser, E.; Mori, A.C.; Mercati, D.G.; Haenggeli, C.-A.; Keller, E.; Lütschg, J.; Marcoz, J.-P.; Ramelli, G.-P.; et al. Neuropsychological Problems after Paediatric Stroke: Two Year Follow-Up of Swiss Children. Neuropediatrics 2006, 37, 13–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  82. Studer, M.; Boltshauser, E.; Mori, A.C.; Datta, A.; Fluss, J.; Mercati, D.; Hackenberg, A.; Keller, E.; Maier, O.; Marcoz, J.-P.; et al. Factors affecting cognitive outcome in early pediatric stroke. Neurology 2014, 82, 784–792. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  83. DeVeber, G.A.; MacGregor, D.; Curtis, R.; Mayank, S. Neurologic Outcome in Survivors of Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Sinovenous Thrombosis. J. Child Neurol. 2000, 15, 316–324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  84. Fox, C.K.; Johnston, S.C.; Sidney, S.; Fullerton, H. High critical care usage due to pediatric stroke: Results of a population-based study. Neurology 2012, 79, 420-7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  85. Mallick, A.A.; Ganesan, V.; Kirkham, F.J.; Fallon, P.; Hedderly, T.; McShane, T.; Parker, A.P.; Wassmer, E.; Wraige, E.; Amin, S.; et al. Outcome and recurrence 1 year after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort. Ann. Neurol. 2016, 79, 784–793. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  86. Elbers, J.; DeVeber, G.; Pontigon, A.-M.; Moharir, M. Long-Term Outcomes of Pediatric Ischemic Stroke in Adulthood. J. Child Neurol. 2013, 29, 782–788. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Lynch, J.K.; Hirtz, D.G.; DeVeber, G.; Nelson, K.B. Report of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke workshop on perinatal and childhood stroke. Pediatrics 2002, 109, 116–123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  88. Hajek, C.A.; Yeates, K.O.; Anderson, V.; Mackay, M.; Greenham, M.; Gomes, A.; Lo, W. Cognitive Outcomes Following Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Infants and Children. J. Child Neurol. 2013, 29, 887–894. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Kolk, A.; Ennok, M.; Laugesaar, R.; Kaldoja, M.-L.; Talvik, T. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes after Pediatric Stroke. Pediatr. Neurol. 2011, 44, 101–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Standardized initial approach to a patient with suspected AIS.
Figure 1. Standardized initial approach to a patient with suspected AIS.
Children 08 00649 g001
Table 1. AIS age-related risk factors.
Table 1. AIS age-related risk factors.
Most Common Risk Factors According to Age Group (According to Jeong et al. [33])
Age GroupMost Common Risk Factor
1–11 monthsCNS infection
Cardiac disease
Severe dehydration
1–5 yearsMoyamoya disease
Cardiac disease
Inflammatory vasculopathy
6–11 yearsMoyamoya disease
Prothrombotic condition
Metabolic disease
≥12 yearsCardiac disease
Prothrombotic condition
Metabolic disease
Table 2. Possible clinical AIS presentation.
Table 2. Possible clinical AIS presentation.
Clinical AIS Presentation
Perinatal AISChildhood AISStroke-Like Symptoms
Seizures (focal and unilateral)HemiparesisMigraine
Cardiorespiratory symptomsFacial unilateral weaknessHeadache
Altered consciousnessSpeech disorderConfusion
Failure to thriveVision abnormalitiesSyncope
Feeding intoleranceAltered consciousnessNausea and vomiting
seizures with Todd paresis
Bell palsy
Altered consciousness
Table 3. Recommended initial approach to a patient at emergency.
Table 3. Recommended initial approach to a patient at emergency.
ABCDE Approach by ERC and EPALS *
ABCDE ApproachAimAction/Management
A—AirwayAirway patency, cervical spine protection if indicatedOpen the mouth, bend the head (over 1 year), use airway if needed, MILS **, cervical collar or head blocks
B—BreathingSpontaneous breathing efficacy, normoxemia, normocapniaPulse oximetry, oxygen, mechanical ventilation if indicated, capnography and blood gases analysis
C—CirculationOxygen delivery to meet the demand, blood pressure (50–95% according to age), adequate heart rate, capillary refill time ≤2 s, lactate ≤2 mmol/LFluid resuscitation (10 mL/kg fluid challenge), vasopressors or antihypertensives to meet target blood pressure
D—DisabilityGCS ≥ 9, seizures controlTracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation if GCS ≤ 8 and anticonvulsants
E—Exposure/ExaminationClinical examination, temperature management, normoglycemia (6–10 mmol/L)Insulin or glucose to meet target glycemia and normothermia
* ERC (European Resuscitation Council); EPALS (European Paediatric Advanced Life Support). ** Manual in-line stabilisation (of the cervical spine). ABCDE—universal initial approach to the patient, considering the importance of vital signs in alphabetical order.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Klučka, J.; Klabusayová, E.; Musilová, T.; Kramplová, T.; Skříšovská, T.; Kratochvíl, M.; Kosinová, M.; Horák, O.; Ošlejšková, H.; Jabandžiev, P.; et al. Pediatric Patient with Ischemic Stroke: Initial Approach and Early Management. Children 2021, 8, 649.

AMA Style

Klučka J, Klabusayová E, Musilová T, Kramplová T, Skříšovská T, Kratochvíl M, Kosinová M, Horák O, Ošlejšková H, Jabandžiev P, et al. Pediatric Patient with Ischemic Stroke: Initial Approach and Early Management. Children. 2021; 8(8):649.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klučka, Jozef, Eva Klabusayová, Tereza Musilová, Tereza Kramplová, Tamara Skříšovská, Milan Kratochvíl, Martina Kosinová, Ondřej Horák, Hana Ošlejšková, Petr Jabandžiev, and et al. 2021. "Pediatric Patient with Ischemic Stroke: Initial Approach and Early Management" Children 8, no. 8: 649.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop