Next Article in Journal
Parental Attachment Patterns in Mothers of Children with Anxiety Disorder
Previous Article in Journal
Parental Educational Attainment and Social Environment of Urban Public Schools in the U.S.: Blacks’ Diminished Returns
Open AccessArticle

Season of Birth Impacts the Neonatal Nasopharyngeal Microbiota

COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Ledreborg Alle 34, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Microbiology and Infection Control, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have equal contribution and should be considered as co-first authors.
Children 2020, 7(5), 45;
Received: 28 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
Objective: Pathogenic airway bacteria colonizing the neonatal airway increase the risk of childhood asthma, but little is known about the determinants of the establishment and dynamics of the airway microbiota in early life. We studied associations between perinatal risk factors and bacterial richness of the commensal milieu in the neonatal respiratory tract. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-eight children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in the Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) at-risk birth cohort were included in this study. The bacterial richness in each of the nasopharynxes of the 1-month old, asymptomatic neonates was analyzed by use of a culture-independent technique (T-RFLP). Information on perinatal risk factors included predisposition to asthma, allergy and eczema; social status of family; maternal exposures during pregnancy; mode of delivery; and postnatal exposures. The risk factor analysis was done by conventional statistics and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). Results: The nasopharyngeal bacterial community at 1-month displayed an average of 35 (IQR: 14–55, range 1–161) phylogenetically different bacteria groups. Season of birth was associated with nasopharyngeal bacterial richness at 1-month of age with a higher bacterial richness (p = 0.003) and more abundant specific bacterial profiles representing Gram-negative alpha-proteobacteria and Gram-positive Bacilli in the nasopharynx of summer-born children. Conclusion: Early postnatal bacterial colonization of the upper airways is significantly affected by birth season, emphasizing a future focus on the seasonality aspect in modelling the impact of early dynamic changes in airway bacterial communities in relation to later disease development. View Full-Text
Keywords: season of birth; nasopharynx; microbiota; bacterial richness; bacteria; summer; children; terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism season of birth; nasopharynx; microbiota; bacterial richness; bacteria; summer; children; terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Schoos, A.-M.M.; Kragh, M.; Ahrens, P.; Kuhn, K.G.; Rasmussen, M.A.; Chawes, B.L.; Jensen, J.S.; Brix, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Stokholm, J. Season of Birth Impacts the Neonatal Nasopharyngeal Microbiota. Children 2020, 7, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop