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Clinical Approach to Pediatric Transverse Myelitis, Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Acute Flaccid Myelitis

by Cynthia Wang 1,2,* and Benjamin Greenberg 1,2
1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
2
Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2019, 6(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6050070
Received: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders in Children)
Pediatric transverse myelitis (TM) is an acquired, immune-mediated disorder that leads to injury of the spinal cord and often manifests as weakness, numbness, bowel dysfunction, and/or bladder dysfunction. Multiple etiologies for myelitis can result in a similar clinical presentation, including idiopathic transverse myelitis (TM), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyeltis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) associated with anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, MOG antibody-associated disease, and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Diagnosis relies on clinical recognition of the syndrome and confirming inflammation through imaging and/or laboratory studies. Acute treatment is targeted at decreasing immune-mediated injury, and chronic preventative therapy may be indicated if TM is determined to be a manifestation of a relapsing disorder (i.e., NMOSD). Timely recognition and treatment of acute transverse myelitis is essential, as it can be associated with significant morbidity and long-term disability. View Full-Text
Keywords: transverse myelitis; neuromyelitis optica spectrum order; acute flaccid myelitis; pediatric; review transverse myelitis; neuromyelitis optica spectrum order; acute flaccid myelitis; pediatric; review
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Greenberg, B. Clinical Approach to Pediatric Transverse Myelitis, Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Acute Flaccid Myelitis. Children 2019, 6, 70.

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