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Clinical Approach to Pediatric Transverse Myelitis, Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Acute Flaccid Myelitis

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
2
Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas TX, 75390, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2019, 6(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6050070
Received: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders in Children)
PDF [236 KB, uploaded 17 May 2019]

Abstract

Pediatric transverse myelitis (TM) is an acquired, immune-mediated disorder that leads to injury of the spinal cord and often manifests as weakness, numbness, bowel dysfunction, and/or bladder dysfunction. Multiple etiologies for myelitis can result in a similar clinical presentation, including idiopathic transverse myelitis (TM), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyeltis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) associated with anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, MOG antibody-associated disease, and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Diagnosis relies on clinical recognition of the syndrome and confirming inflammation through imaging and/or laboratory studies. Acute treatment is targeted at decreasing immune-mediated injury, and chronic preventative therapy may be indicated if TM is determined to be a manifestation of a relapsing disorder (i.e., NMOSD). Timely recognition and treatment of acute transverse myelitis is essential, as it can be associated with significant morbidity and long-term disability.
Keywords: transverse myelitis; neuromyelitis optica spectrum order; acute flaccid myelitis; pediatric; review transverse myelitis; neuromyelitis optica spectrum order; acute flaccid myelitis; pediatric; review
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, C.; Greenberg, B. Clinical Approach to Pediatric Transverse Myelitis, Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder and Acute Flaccid Myelitis. Children 2019, 6, 70.

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