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Review

Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Updates of Clinical and Pathological Features after Renewed World Health Organisation Classification and Pathology Staging

1
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
2
Pathology Queensland, Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, Gold Coast, QLD 4215, Australia
3
Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
Academic Editors: Chitra Subramanian and Yasuhiro Nakamura
Biomedicines 2021, 9(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020175
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a heterogenous group of diseases with different clinical behaviour between adult and paediatric patients. In addition, three histological variants, oncocytic, myxoid and sarcomatoid are noted on the recent World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of ACC. A review of recent literature showed that the different types of ACC have distinctive demographic data, clinical presentation, pathology, biological behaviour, genomic and patients’ prognosis. In addition, recent updates of pathology staging for ACC allow refinement of prognostic grouping for planning treatment of the patients with ACC. These advances in genomic, pathology and staging have driven the development of standardisation of pathology reporting. International standardisation of pathological reporting of adrenocortical carcinoma and adaption to local pathology communities provide universal platforms for clinicians and researchers involved in the management of patients with ACC. To conclude, all these advances in the field of pathology will improve development of management strategies including improvement of clinical care, development of prognostic markers and testing of novel therapeutic approaches for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: adrenocortical carcinoma; adrenal; staging; pathology; oncocytic; myxoid; sarcomatoid adrenocortical carcinoma; adrenal; staging; pathology; oncocytic; myxoid; sarcomatoid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lam, A.K.-y. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Updates of Clinical and Pathological Features after Renewed World Health Organisation Classification and Pathology Staging. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020175

AMA Style

Lam AK-y. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Updates of Clinical and Pathological Features after Renewed World Health Organisation Classification and Pathology Staging. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(2):175. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lam, Alfred King-yin. 2021. "Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Updates of Clinical and Pathological Features after Renewed World Health Organisation Classification and Pathology Staging" Biomedicines 9, no. 2: 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020175

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