Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Updates of Clinical and Pathological Features after Renewed World Health Organisation Classification and Pathology Staging
Previous Article in Journal
Curcumin as Scaffold for Drug Discovery against Neurodegenerative Diseases
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Review

The Role of Biomarkers in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Review of Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

1
Department of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
2
Department of Pathophysiology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
3
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chitra Subramanian
Biomedicines 2021, 9(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020174
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy arising from the adrenal cortex often with unexpected biological behavior. It can occur at any age, with two peaks of incidence: in the first and between fifth and seventh decades of life. Although ACC are mostly hormonally active, precursors and metabolites, rather than end products of steroidogenesis are produced by dedifferentiated and immature malignant cells. Distinguishing the etiology of adrenal mass, between benign adenomas, which are quite frequent in general population, and malignant carcinomas with dismal prognosis is often unfeasible. Even after pathohistological analysis, diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinomas is not always straightforward and represents a great challenge for experienced and multidisciplinary expert teams. No single imaging method, hormonal work-up or immunohistochemical labelling can definitively prove the diagnosis of ACC. Over several decades’ great efforts have been made in finding novel reliable and available diagnostic and prognostic factors including steroid metabolome profiling or target gene identification. Despite these achievements, the 5-year mortality rate still accounts for approximately 75% to 90%, ACC is frequently diagnosed in advanced stages and therapeutic options are unfortunately limited. Therefore, imperative is to identify new biological markers that can predict patient prognosis and provide new therapeutic options. View Full-Text
Keywords: adrenocortical carcinoma; biomarkers; steroidogenesis; pathophysiology; hormones; steroid profiling; microRNA; next-generation sequencing; prognosis; survival adrenocortical carcinoma; biomarkers; steroidogenesis; pathophysiology; hormones; steroid profiling; microRNA; next-generation sequencing; prognosis; survival
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mizdrak, M.; Tičinović Kurir, T.; Božić, J. The Role of Biomarkers in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Review of Current Evidence and Future Perspectives. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020174

AMA Style

Mizdrak M, Tičinović Kurir T, Božić J. The Role of Biomarkers in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Review of Current Evidence and Future Perspectives. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(2):174. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020174

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mizdrak, Maja, Tina Tičinović Kurir, and Joško Božić. 2021. "The Role of Biomarkers in Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Review of Current Evidence and Future Perspectives" Biomedicines 9, no. 2: 174. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9020174

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop